Palmer Development Consulting

 Project Descriptions 2000-2006


Evaluation of the IIEC Eco Homes Advisors Training Programme   3

EHA evaluation 2. 6

SHI evaluation.. 7

Production of the monthly SESSA Friend Newsletter.. 8

Clean Development Mechanism regional workshop. 8

RISØ.. 8

Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Conference 2000. 11

Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Post-purchase study.. 12

Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Price Elasticity Test.. 13

Solar Cooking Compendium... 15

ProBEC.. 16

Bonesa Efficient Lighting Initiative Training/Resource Manual.. 18

CRACK Facilitator’s Manual.. 19

EBSST.. 20



Supplying information for the development of IIEC Eco House Model   24

Investigation into the use of indigenous medicinal plants. 24

Sustainable Energy Policy Concepts (SEPCo) Workshop. 26

ProBEC UNDP/GEF Proposal.. 27

Environmental Impact Monitoring of a dolomite quarry.. 27

Increasing the affordability and accessibility of LPG to the rural poor – Department of Minerals and Energy.. 29

Basa Njengo Magogo Pilot Study – Orange Farm... 31

Solar cooker market survey.. 34

Review of the effectiveness of energy subsidies and related taxation policies in South Africa.. 36

Formulation, implementation and evaluation of the marketing of JI Zero Energy Houses. 38

Increased use of renewable energy resources program - Winrock   40

Mozambique Natural Gas questionnaire and database.. 40

Quantifying benefits of energy efficient house design through specified air quality and household energy activity monitoring. 40

Solar cooker use and impact summary study – GTZ. 41

CDM Methodologies for Methane capture and utilisation.. 47

Preparing a strategy and implementation plan for a national roll-out of the Basa Njengo Magogo programme.. 47



Financial Management and Training of Gauteng Schools.  Study completed for Matthew Goniwe School of Leadership and Governance.. 59





Evaluation of the IIEC Eco Homes Advisors Training Programme       

The aim of the project was to critically evaluate the IIEC’s Eco Homes Advisor’s Programme with a view to formulate and propose specific recommendations for improvement.  The Eco Home Advisors initiative aimed to add capacity to the South African housing effort by training representatives from housing delivery groups on environmentally sound construction.   In the first phase of the programme, nine host organisations participated.  The Advisors, who themselves were selected by the host organisations, completed a three week training course held by IIEC.  The Eco Home Advisor work concentrates on the promotion of passive-solar housing.  The Advisors’ work also promotes smart water and waste management.  

The EHA Programme aimed to realise the following benefits:

·        a reduction in household expenditure on energy and water consumption;

·        improvement in health and indoor air quality;

·        greater household comfort;

·        and the promotion of local emerging construction contractors providing Eco Homes. 


The Eco-Home Advisors (EHA) initiative aimed to provide local housing delivery organizations with trained energy and environmental staff to help ensure the energy-development linkage is not missed. The Eco-Home Advisors also had to be a focal point for energy-efficient housing demonstrations and community awareness raising.

Specific aspects of the EHA programme was evaluated by analysing data collected through a set of structured interviews conducted with specific project partners.  The evaluation of critical project indicators revealed the following:


Quality of energy advisor training

In summary, the EHA’s who did attend one of the three training sessions said that it was beneficial to them, the training was adequate, the material presented during the sessions was adequate and they were all satisfied with the preparation that went into each training session.  Although everyone was satisfied with the training, 80% of the individuals indicated that they would require follow up training.  IIEC was of the opinion that the first training session was too long and that shorter, more frequent and more practical training sessions were required.


Number of local housing organizations receiving assistance

6 of the 7 participating NGO’s are local housing organizations.  It was also indicated that local government and national government departments benefited from the programme.


Community perception of project effectiveness

Of the community members interviewed, 94% felt that the EHA’s delivered a positive service while 95% felt the programme should continue.  Figure 1 below illustrates the percentage of respondents following EHA advice per area.

Figure 1: Percentage of respondents following EHA advice per area


Number of homes undertaking efficient and health related technologies or practices

It was difficult to indicate a precise number of homes undertaking energy efficient measures, but it was concluded that a very high number of households which had been exposed to the programme and received advice from the EHA’s, seem to be implementing energy efficient measures.  Respondents indicated various noticeable results after implementing the advice of the EHA’s:


Figure 2: Noticeable results after EHA advice implementation

Number of women provided with healthy home assistance

Of the 54 community members interviewed, 46 were women and 76% have reportedly received assistance from the EHA programme.  It can therefore be concluded that a high percentage of women who were interviewed, received assistance.


Employment generated due to the programme

In Welkom, 100 women were trained in building and construction, while 23 are directly employed by the participating organization. 


Local business opportunities created from energy efficient technologies

Very few business opportunities were created from the programme and 75% of participating organisations indicated that emerging contractors did not benefit from the programme.


Number of historically disadvantaged black organizations participating in all aspects of the programme

It was noted that the project indicator was not clearly defined and no clear criteria set for evaluating the indicator.  All participating organizations and individuals can be argued to be from previously disadvantaged groups and therefore, the conclusion can be made that 100% participation of historically disadvantaged groups has been achieved.  It was noted however, that the analysis is simplistic.  The benefits of the programme as experienced at various levels are illustrated below:


Figure 3: Benefits experienced by different role-players (organisations)


The majority of EHA’s felt that the programme goals had been reached, while only 43% of interviewed organizations felt the same.  It was concluded that the EHA programme goals have been interpreted by participating organizations, often in line with the organizations’ own goals.  It was recommended that the programme goals should be phrased in the simplest manner possible and linked to a slogan or statement to lock it into people’s minds.


In Kimberley, all respondents interviewed reported that their houses were warmer in winter and cooler in summer.  Respondents also noted that the air inside the house is cleaner, that they spent less money on fuel and that the children coughed less in winter.  The community also indicated energy savings as the most important benefit of implementing suggested interventions.  It was concluded that in Kimberley, the programme achieved the stated project aims of effecting energy savings through a reduction of household energy expenditure and consumption; improving indoor air quality and achieving greater household comfort.  It was noted that perceived benefits (as reported by community members not living in eco homes) did not correspond closely with reported benefits (from community members living in eco homes).  The potential community benefits were also differently perceived by EHA’s and participating organizations.  It was concluded that this was caused by the immature stage of project implementation in certain areas, as well as a possible misinterpretation of project goals.  Lastly, it was also noted that community priorities such as income generation need to be addressed through an emphasis on the cost savings potential of the implementation of energy efficient measures.  The quality of the EHA’s message should therefore, be improved to ensure that community members understand the message as well as the possible benefits that will ensue if the message (advice) is implemented


It was concluded that the programme was viewed as a general success by all role-players with some areas being more successful than others.  Specific recommendations were put forward by different role-players to improve similar programmes.



EHA evaluation 2

The aim of the second evaluation of the Eco Home Advisors Programme was to critically evaluate:


·        The impact/effect of participating organizations having a demonstration Eco home to create awareness on energy efficient housing; and

·        The impact of the raised awareness in leading to job creation ideas.


Only the participating organizations with Eco demonstration homes were included in the evaluation, i.e.  Kutlwanong KHICT (Kimberley) and Durban North Local Council.  The newly constructed Eco demonstration house that was built in Zastron as part of the Eco Home Advisors Programme was not included, since it was completed very recently. A third organization which was not part of the original Eco Home Advisors Programme was included, namely Midrand Eco City – a partner organization of IIEC Africa. 


The evaluation results are presented in the form of case studies.  From the case studies, the following conclusions were drawn:


·        The availability of an Eco demonstration Home is extremely important in communities targeted for awareness raising.

·        Although the availability of an Eco demonstration Home contributed to awareness raising regarding energy efficiency, care must be taken that potential benefits are maximised and expanded.

·        Effective information dissemination and awareness raising has to be conducted continuously to maximise benefits.

·        The availability of an Eco demonstration house increased people’s awareness around energy efficient buildings and they recognised the potential income generation benefits of obtaining a skill in this area. 


Recommendations include the formulation of an integrated marketing and management plan to ensure adequate awareness raising efforts.



SHI evaluation

Palmer Development Consulting was contracted by IIEC to conduct a short evaluation of the Sustainable Homes Initiative.  Three project components, namely the Green Professionals component, the Sustainable Homes Network as well as the Decision-Makers Seminar were evaluated in terms of specific themes.


Effecting market change in the low-cost housing sector

It was concluded that respondents are of the opinion that the SHI contributed to the beginning of market change in the low cost housing sector, but that more actual implementation of concepts would be required to create a demand for energy efficient homes.


Impact of the SHI on participating organizations’ activities

The majority of organizations experienced a positive impact of the SHI on their activities.  The SHI had a direct impact on the quality of housing delivered and design, lay-out and plans were changed to incorporate Green Professionals’ advice.  In summary, from the responses it was experienced that the SHI had a significant impact on participating organizations and individuals, resulting in concrete benefits in terms of enabling organizations to incorporate energy efficiency into their work plan, ultimately influencing the quality of houses being delivered.


Effectiveness of the SHI

Respondents judged the SHI to be effective, and in most cases all respondents felt that intended goals were reached.  Most responses indicated a high level of satisfaction with the effectiveness of the SHI with tangible benefits experienced by participants.


The Green Professionals (GP) component of the SHI specifically translated into direct benefits to communities in terms of savings (energy costs and expenditure on energy), healthier environments as well as information dissemination and capacity building.  Further benefits are also possible, as the programme is still being implemented for completion in 2002.


Employment generated through the SHI

The majority of organizational respondents and all GPs indicated that employment had been created by the project.  Since implementation is still underway, further positive benefits may result in terms of employment and benefits to women.


Women benefiting through the SHI

Women specifically benefited directly and indirectly from the Green Professionals component.  Direct benefits included employment and training, while indirect benefits were listed as women participating in project steering as well as the potential benefit of women visiting the education centre.



Production of the monthly SESSA Friend Newsletter

The Solar Energy Society of Southern Africa (SESSA), is a non-profit organisation dedicated to promoting and increasing the use of renewable energy.  SESSA aims to achieve its objectives by managing the Southern African Database of renewable energy stakeholders (SESSA Who’s Who) and the publication and broad dissemination of  a monthly newsletter (SESSA Friend).  Marlett Wentzel, acting as the SESSA Friend editor for the past 6 years and Palmer Development Consulting was contracted to produce 12 issues of the monthly newsletter.  PDC has been fulfilling this task for the past 3 years.  For more information on Sessa also see



Clean Development Mechanism regional workshop

Marlett Wentzel facilitated a 3-day regional workshop on Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) organised by the Minerals and Energy Policy Centre (MEPC).  The workshop forms part of a project entitled “Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Capacity Building for South Africa and Southern Africa”, funded by the Shell Foundation’s Sustainable Energy Programme (SEP).  The major objective of the project was to ensure that South Africa and the region has a cleaner, more resource efficient economy with a comparative advantage in the international CDM market  The workshop took place from 16-18 August at MEPC.  Approximately 30 representatives attended the workshop from NGO’s in SADC countries.




Palmer Development Consulting (PDC) was contracted to participate in the project “Assessment of the commercialisation of selected sustainable energy technologies, products and services”.  The focus of the project was to provide AREED with background information on the suitability of providing selected technologies, products and services in a commercially sustainable manner, in order to guide the screening and selection of investments and the development of business models. 


Technology status

Solar cookers utilise the simple principles of reflection, concentration, glazing, absorption and the greenhouse effect to produce heat.  Various types of solar cookers exist, harnessing one or more of these principles.  The generic types are:


·        Solar box cookers or solar ovens

·        Parabolic reflector cookers

·        Indirect solar cookers


The approach to dissemination of solar cookers world-wide has traditionally been non-commercial and no recorded commercial application has taken place. The definition of commercialisation is taken to mean “the manufacture and sale of solar cookers is a profit driven process in that the income derived (which may or may not include subsidies) is sufficient to make it a worthwhile activity for the entrepreneur”.  The ongoing Solar Cooker field test in South Africa is the closest to what can be described as a case study on commercialisation and is therefore used as the basis for the assessment.


Internationally cooker production status can be classified into:

  • Prototype
  • Pre-series
  • Series


All solar cooker production activities to date can be classified in prototype and pre-series production.


The commercialisation process of solar cookers presents different commercialisation opportunities:

1.            Production of a product with commercial value – the production of the cookers by a manufacturer (product)

2.            Distribution of solar cookers – physically transporting and distributing cookers to retail outlets (service) as well as related issues such as packaging

3.            Retailers selling solar cookers to end-users or customers (service)

4.            Marketing and advertising solar cookers as product and as concept (service)

5.            Maintenance and repair to maintain the product (service)

6.            Training to end-users, retailers and service providers (service)


From the experience of the South African Solar Cooker Field Test, only options 1 and 3 can be profitable in the shorter term, provided that demand for solar cookers is adequate (estimated to be at least in the series production of 1000 cookers per manufacturing batch).  Price emerged as the single most important factor and research indicated that the market responds to prices between R200 and R400 ($25 - $50). 


It is doubtful if individual countries, , will offer a large enough potential customer base  to sustain individual local producers of solar cookers.  Instead, a regional approach should be adopted where production takes place in one country and solar cookers are exported and assembled in neighbouring countries.  This is would be the only way in which the economies of scale from mass production (estimated at t10 000 units per annum) could be reached.


Market & Customers

The ideal market for solar cooking is in:

·        Areas with a high level solar radiation,

·        The dependence on biomass as an energy source for cooking in households, community facilities (schools) and small businesses.

·        Low availability of biomass especially fuel wood

·        High costs for alternative cooking fuels such as bottled gas


Figure 4: Product development, Market development and the Product Life Cycle


Various factors are required for production delivery, of which, the most important factors are:


Credit to purchase (end-user credit)

The target market of the rural poor or biomass dependents require some form of credit in order to purchase a solar cooker.  Monthly instalments, lay buys and savings clubs are important tools to extend credit to the end-user. 


Capital for tooling costs

Solar cooker manufacturers require capital for tooling up costs and preparation for the production process.  In order to produce high quality cookers, injection moulding is recommended for example, and the capital required for the mould would be in the order of approximately $200 000.



The marketing of solar cookers requires substantial capital to be effectual.  General awareness raising around the concept of solar cooking as well as the marketing of the products themselves are required.  Marketing is an expensive undertaking and in the experience of the South African solar cooker field test, manufacturers cannot afford to pay for awareness raising and advertising.


End-user training and support

The importance of end-user training and support as a critical success factor in the dissemination of solar cookers has been well documented in international literature.  However, training is difficult to organize and expensive to implement.  The use of various training materials should be considered.


In terms of the aims of AREED, described as seeking to create energy companies that use renewable energy technologies to meet the energy needs of the poor, thereby reducing the environmental and health consequences of existing energy use patterns, the support of the commercialisation of solar cooking is appropriate and justified. The objective of the AREED programme is to expand and support the private sector in five select African countries (Botswana, Zambia, Mali, Senegal and Ghana) in the delivery of products and services in the sustainable energy field. With this objective in mind, possibilities to support the production of solar cookers in a single country, with export links to other countries should be investigated. 



Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Conference 2000

The CDG/DME/GTZ International Conference on solar cooking and thermal applications” were held in Kimberley, South Africa from 27 – 29 November 2000.  The conference was organised by the South African Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG) and GTZ.  Palmer Development Consulting assisted DME in the organization of the Conference under contract from CDG.


Objectives of the International Conference on Solar Cooking:


·        To review global progress in the promotion of solar cooking particularly in the developing world;

·        To share ideas on effective strategies for the commercialisation of solar cookers and other technologies, as well as on

Ø      Large-scale dissemination of solar cookers, solar dryers, solar water heating systems, etc.

Ø      Efficient appliances/stoves for biomass programmes.

·        To overcome barriers with regards to renewable energy technologies in particular solar cookers;

·        To highlight pilot studies and successful case studies;

·        To draw lessons from the feedback of end-users and communities;

·        To explore the possible contribution of these technologies towards income generating activities.


Figure 5: Solar stoves outside the conference hall in Kimberley before a solar lunch for 200 people was prepared


PDC compiled, edited and distributed the Conference Proceedings in co-operation with GTZ and DME.



Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Post-purchase study

The first phase of DME/GTZ Solar Cooker Field Test aimed at testing end-user acceptance of seven different solar cooker models in three test areas in South Africa. The study of acceptance by families concerned six different cooker models and was completed at the end of 1997. Solar cookers were shown to be accepted by users who were given the opportunity to buy the used test cookers at a discounted price at the end of the placement period.

In order to study user acceptance over a longer period of time, an ex- post-purchase analysis in the original test areas (Pniel, Onseepkans and Huhudi) was undertaken. A field trip took place from 27 January until 4 February 2000.

It was found that:

·      Most of the cookers sold could be located

·      Most of the cookers were still in use

·      Most users did not regret the purchase of a solar cooker and will choose to buy a solar cooker again

·      Most users were satisfied with their original choice of cooker and would buy the same model again

·      The users who would buy another cooker would choose a bigger, more convenient model

·      Half of the cookers needed basic repairs, which was undertaken.


Figure 6: Solar cookers sold, used, intended to buy

It can be seen that most of the remaining users still use their solar cooker, would buy a solar cooker again, and – still a majority – would buy the same solar cooker again. Onseepkans shows the highest sales; all cookers are still used, all users would buy another solar cooker – but not all would buy the same model.


The main reasons for acquiring a solar cooker was listed as savings, as illustrated below:


Reasons for Solar Cooker Acquisition










Solar Cooker Field Test Project:  Price Elasticity Test

A price elasticity study for solar stoves took place in Kimberley and Upington (close to two of the original three field test areas of phase 1) from 25 March to 28 April 2001. The purpose of the price elasticity study was to establish to which extend the price of a solar stove is of importance for potential buyers, when making a decision to purchase a solar stove. A targeted advertising campaign was conducted in the two towns.  Cooking demonstrations were held at taxi ranks, and in front of shops selling the stoves. Awareness of the stoves has been increased not only through the cooking demonstrations, but also through presence in the media (radio spots and newspaper ads).  It showed that the interest in the solar stoves increased considerably during the study phase and is higher than before. Solar stove sales increased when market prices were reduced to under R400.


The main findings of the study showed that:

  • Sales of solar stoves increased as prices decreased, confirming that price is extremely important for prospective buyers of solar stoves;
  • However, price is only important if potential buyers are aware of the concept of solar cooking and where to find solar stoves.  Marketing and awareness raising is therefore, extremely important;


Figure 7: Reasons for not buying a solar stove (potential end-user responses)


  • The tolerance price for solar stoves was found to be R400.  Any price below the figure will most probably be accepted by the market;
  • Sunstove sales decreased in the period while other stove sales increased, illustrating that if other solar stoves are available at comparable prices to that of the Sunstoves, buyers will also consider efficiency and capacity;
  • The effect of lower prices and promotion activities could be detected after marketing and promotional activities took place, emphasizing that decisions about purchasing a solar stove takes some time to be finalized.


It was concluded that price is an important factor in the decision-making process when buying a solar stove but marketing and promotional activities are also extremely important to raise awareness of the concept of solar cooking as well as the products available.


Figure 8: Sales per cooker per month



Solar Cooking Compendium

The Solar Cooking Compendium (SCC) is about the viability of solar stoves as a solution to the scarcity of household energy. Viability is measured in commercial terms. It means manufacturing and marketing of solar stoves without subsidies. In the future, this will be the criterion for judging projects promoting solar cooking. The SCC is based on the experience gained in implementing the Solar Cooker Field Test (SCFT) in South Africa from 1996 to 2003. It consisted of Phase 1 – Global market situation of solar stoves and social acceptance test (1996 - 1998) and Phase 2 – Estimate the market potential in South Africa, manufacture of solar stoves, and test marketing (1999 - 2003).


To keep it as a user-friendly manual-type document the SCC is confined to a maximum of 350 pages. It has been edited in six volumes:


Main Report

Challenges and achievements of the Solar Cooker Field Test in South Africa



Volume 1

Scarcity of household energy and the rationale of solar cooking



Volume 2

Social acceptance of solar stoves in South Africa



Volume 3

Manufacturing solar stoves in South Africa



Volume 4

Marketing solar stoves in South Africa



Volume 5

Using the experience of South Africa for new solar cooking projects elsewhere


The SCC was prepared in the second half of 2001 and early 2002 by a team of South African and German specialists led by Eberhard Biermann and comprising Franz Diederich, Michael Grupp, Richard Palmer, Yvonne Schoenemann, and Marlett Wentzel. The team was assisted by, Erica de Lange, Tony Golding, Frikkie Herbst, Agnes Klingshirn, and Dieter Unverzagt. Many others provided helpful support. Of paramount importance was the close collaboration with the people in rural and semi-urban areas constituting the target group of solar cooking.




Biomass still amounts to nearly 80% of total energy demand in SADC countries. Most of this energy is used for household purposes (cooking, baking, lighting, heating) but a substantial amount goes into small-scale businesses like brick firing, fish smoking, processing of agricultural products, beer brewing, and restaurants.  In addition, recent statistics suggest that biomass energy use for Africa will have doubled by the year 2020. Main reasons for this are a high population increase, low incomes and a shortage of foreign currency.


An energy baseline study was conducted in the northern Province of South Africa to provide energy specific household data to assist in the planning and design of further actions on the dissemination of improved stoves. 


The average family size in both areas is 6 people.  In both areas, in the majority of the households, men are considered to be the heads of the households.  This would have implications in the implementation of specific programmes when gender, decision-making processes and power relationships regarding purchasing would need to be considered.  Both areas can be considered fairly well off in terms of access to income sources, although Ga Maraba seems to be slightly less well off with more pensioners and less households with someone in employment.  In general, both areas seem better off than rural areas in general where unemployment is high and reliance on pensions and remittances very high.  The conclusion that Ga Mogano is “richer” or better off is based on the fact that more households have someone formally employed in Ga Mogano than in Ga Maraba (62% vs. 44%) respectively.  Also more people farm and sell produce (19,4% vs 11,1%) and lastly, only 15,2% rely on pensions in Ga Mogano in contract to 30,5% in Ga Maraba.


With regard to appliance ownership, a high level of ownership of electrical appliances seems to indicate that the areas have been electrified for some time.  It further indicates the relative wealth of households since appliances such as refrigerators are expensive and normally ownership in rural areas is not that high.  Ownership of radio’s, televisions as well as fridges is higher in Ga Maraba (identified as a poorer area) than in Ga Mogano. 


The use of wood for cooking purposes in Ga Mogano is higher in both summer and winter than in Ga Maraba.  Electricity use for cooking is high in Ga Maraba (46,6% in summer and 36,4% in winter respectively).  It would seem that wood fuel interventions would be more appropriate in Ga Mogano due to the higher incidence of fuel wood use for cooking purposes.  The use of wood for cooking purposes in Ga Mogano is higher in both summer and winter than in Ga Maraba.  Electricity use for cooking is high in Ga Maraba (46,6% in summer and 36,4% in winter respectively).  It would seem that wood fuel interventions would be more appropriate in Ga Mogano due to the higher incidence of fuel wood use for cooking purposes.  The different fuels used for lighting purposes in the 2 areas are illustrated below:


Figure 9: Fuel used for lighting: Ga Maraba



Figure 10: Fuel used for lighting: Ga Mogano


In Ga Maraba, 43% of households buy wood (whether they buy wood only or wood and other fuels) at an average cost of R168 per month.  In total, households spend approximately R370 per month on energy.  In Ga Maraba, 43% of households buy wood (whether they buy wood only or wood and other fuels) at an average cost of R168 per month.  In total, households spend approximately R370 per month on energy.


The most popular method of cooking in use is boiling and that the method of cooking will be suitable for energy efficient wood stoves.  It can further be concluded that enough cooking opportunities exist to justify the introduction of efficient stoves, i.e.  households cook often (at least twice daily) as opposed to areas where cooking may only take place once a day due to food scarcities, energy shortages or labour shortages (someone to actually do the cooking).  Lastly, it is also clear that the type of food prepared  (porridge, vegetables, meat) would be suited to prepare on an energy efficient wood stove.


Conclusions therefore, seem to indicate that both study areas are generally wealthy with a high level of appliance ownership.  However, wood fuel use, especially for cooking purposes is still high and wood fuel is considered to be scarce in both areas.  Households experience additional problems associated with the use of wood fuel as an energy source as well as problems with the use of conventional energy sources.  The combination of wood fuel scarcity, continued high levels of wood fuel use, awareness regarding problems associated with wood fuel use and an indication of the potential of disposable income to be spent on appliances seems to indicate positive conditions for the implementation of an improved stove programme.



Bonesa Efficient Lighting Initiative Training/Resource Manual

Palmer Development Consulting developed a resource training manual for regional coordinators.  The aim of the manual is to provide background information on the efficient lighting initiative (ELI) project; a description of the ELI sub-projects as well as an overview of the roles and responsibilities of regional coordinators, project management and reporting protocols.


The training manual consists of the following modules:

  • Contextualisation:  Environment, energy, demand side management
  • The ELI
  • CFL’s (very basic description to be enhanced later by a full technical module)
  • The benefits of CFL’s
  •  The respective ELI sub-projects







1.1       Energy and environment


1.2       Electrification


1.3       The South African Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI-RSA)


1.4       Background to Bonesa




2.1       Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)


2.2       Control Gear (Ballasts)












ELI LOW INCOME SUBSIDY PROGRAMME (via Pre-payment vendors)






10.1 Reporting relationships


10.2     Reporting


10.3     Administration


Annexure A: ESCO Business Process


Annexure B: Weekly Reports


Annexure C: Timesheet



CRACK Facilitator’s Manual

Palmer Development Consulting was contracted by AFRICON to produce a manual that can be used by facilitators to create awareness and to facilitate attitudinal and behavioural change regarding issues pertaining to electricity amongst communities and learners.  This manual has been designed in an outcome-based format and could be used by AFRICON for training fieldworkers in other projects as well.  The manual together with posters and pamphlets were intended for use by Eskom in their Pilot projects in Kagiso, Bekkersdal, Katlehong and Zola.


The manual contained the following information:







1.1    What is energy?


1.2    Why do we need energy?


1.3    Who needs energy (energy demand sectors)




2.1    Role players in the energy sector


2.2    Energy Policy


2.3    Electricity chain (restructuring of sector and result thereof)




3.1    What is electricity?


3.2    How is electricity generated?


3.3    How does electricity reach the consumer (vendors, agents)


3.4    Electricity and the Environment


3.5    Electricity connections in urban and rural areas (Eskom’s social responsibility)




4.1    How the cost of electricity is determined


4.2    Why do we measure electricity use?


4.3    How do we measure electricity?


4.4    How to pay for electricity (prepaid meter, credit control, bad credit risk)


4.5    Consumer rights and responsibilities


4.6    Why electricity supply is interrupted


4.7    Consequences of illegal connection


4.8    Vandalism and theft


4.9    Reporting problems




5.1    The benefits of electricity


5.2    The safe use of electricity


5.3    Saving electricity


5.4    Appliances and electricity




Poster A: Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity


Background information to poster A


Poster B: Negative scenario poster


Background information to poster B


Poster C: Positive scenario poster


Background information to poster C




A free basic allocation of electricity to alleviate the effects of poverty was first proposed by the chairman (at the time) of the National Electricity Regulator in September 1998, and then again by the President, the Minister of Minerals and Energy and other politicians before the local government elections in December 2000.  In a government pressured for service delivery, the provision of free electricity to the poor seemed like an excellent idea, especially on the eve of an election.  With the wheels in motion, turning at breakneck speed due to harnessed political will, the first pilot projects were active as early August 2001 and the first rural pilot project was launched by the Minister of Minerals and Energy in Mathope Stad, North-West province in October 2001.  The evaluation of the pilot projects was carried out between October 2001 and February 2002, investigating the intended purpose, costs, benefits and implementation of a Basic Electricity Support Tariff (BEST), previously known as the Electricity Basic Support Services Tariff (EBSST) and before that, the Poverty Tariff.


The research carried out by the University of Cape Town, included a component using focus groups in the pilot project areas to collect information from end-users, electricity vendors and service providers regarding their experiences and expectations of the EBSST.  Palmer Development Consulting was requested to complete focus group interviews in 3 pilot areas:  Mathope Stad near Rustenburg in the North-West province, Gasese and Tsineng near Kuruman in the Northern-Cape province and Bloemfontein service area, Orange Free State.  The article will focus on the experiences and responses from these areas only and should therefore not be interpreted as representative of all pilot areas.




This work was been undertaken in close co-operation with the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), the five solar home system (SHS) concessionaires and various other government departments. The project was funded and managed by Eskom Enterprises, TSI Division. 


There are limited economic benefits that can be derived from the provision of SHS.  The social benefits are that people perceive it to improve their quality of life and that they benefit from government policies.  Electricity is however, not a necessity in the same manner as water and sanitation.  Electrification policy is accepted to be the universal access to adequate energy services, thus contributing to the ultimate goal of human development.  The supportive strategy to realise this policy goal is the provision of a capital subsidy on new connections (all grid and selected non-grid areas) through the National Electrification Fund (NEF).  Poverty alleviation became the focus prioir to the 2000 municipal elections and the policy of free basic services was announced.  The policy choice (operating subsidies) is different from the one made in the Energy White Paper (capital subsidies).  Although they can operate in parallel to achieve the same outcome, the two policy mechanisms actually compete for limited resources from the fiscus.  Furthermore, international experience indicates that operating subsidies crowd out capital subsidies, effectively creating a stiuation that is the opposite of the goal of extending access to services.


Unlike grid-connected users who have the choice of the level of their electricity consumption through pre-payment systems, non-grid consumers have to bear fixed monthly costs, whether they use the energy service or not.  Due to the lack of cross-subsidisation potential from wealthy or industrial consumers, the SHS industry has to pay carefull attention to the selection of their customers.  The have to avoid customers who are not likely to pay their service fee regularly.  This impacts on take-up rates and the potential to service the poorest of the poor.  Due to the lack of data on take-up rates, it is not possible to speculate on take-up rates and the impact thereof on concessionaire viability.


New subsidy arrangements for SHS need to take existing national policy frameworks into account. These frameworks include:


·          General energy sector policies;

·          The emerging policy framework for an EBSST for grid consumers;

·          The national electrification programme;

·          EDI reform proposals;

·          The structure of the SHS industry, presently constituted as a number of area-defined concessions;

·          General policies on local government and the delivery of municipal infrastructure

·          Various legal and constitutional issues, such as the definition of electricity reticulation;

·          Broader welfare policies; and

·          Fiscal policies


Once governance arrangements have been finalised the next most important issue to be addressed is that of financial integration.  Two choices are available, namely the electricity sector could set up its own arrangements for capital and operating subsidies (the national channel option) or integrated these with arrangements for municipal infrastructure as a whole (the local channel option).  The industry favors the first option while it is the research team is of the opinion that the local channel will be to option selected due to the alignment with existing policies and governance practices.  From the review of stakeholder views on governance and funding channels it is clear that there is are major differences of opinion on the choice of national or local channel. It is probably fair to say that the pro-local preference is based on a long-term, principled position, whilst the pro-national preference is based on a short-term, pragmatic reading of the situation.


The pricing and tariff structure policy area essentially deals with two separate issues:

·                     The appropriate level of operating subsidy; and

·                     The structure of SHS tariffs.


Concessionaires acknowledge that the poorest households are not signing up for SHS services and indicated an acceptable amount of R30 as an appropriate payment for the level of service.. The level of the subsidy will also impact on the aspect of revenue collection.  In the event that the operating subsidy is set at a high level, consumers will have to make very small payments.  At some point the cost of collection will exceed the value of the revenue collected.


In practice concessionaires have implemented a variety of tariffs. Solar Vision and Africa Solar charge a straightforward monthly service fee set at R58.  Noun/RAPS, Eskom/Shell and EDF apply adjusted tariffs when consumers get into arrears.  In the case of Noun/RAPS, the arrears tariff is a function of the period of the arrears, while Eskom/Shell’s arrears tariff is equivalent to the normal tariff.  Some concessionaires expressed reservations about the tariff system, since households are required to pay even if they have not made use of the system.  The monthly charge tariff also makes for a very inflexible approach for poor households. This compares badly to grid tariffs whereby customers can choose to buy electricity only when money is available. The Eskom/Shell JV reports a direct link between customers in arrears and damage to equipment when customers attempt to override the system.


In overall terms, it would appear that the creation of operating subsidies for SHS might well increase the risk profile for the SHS service provider industry, for two reasons. Firstly, the presence of a subsidy will encourage poorer households to sign up for the service. Poor households typically have unpredictable cash flows which do not suit the fixed monthly fee associated with the present SHS tariff structure, leading to higher rates of default and higher operating costs arising from the removal of SHS equipment. In practice an operating subsidy may therefore reduce service provider viability.



The South African Government is responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the National Electrification Programme. It is committed to universal access to electricity that can be reached if the playing field between grid and non-grid technologies is levelled. Subsidies will be provided to both grid and non-grid technologies.


It is uneconomical to extend grid electrification to most of the unconnected remote rural areas. Non-grid electrification will be provided on a complementary basis to grid electricity to areas that are not viable to be connected through grid electricity. Areas suitable for implementation of non-grid electrification are described as permission areas.


Permission areas are located within the jurisdiction of District Councils or Local Municipalities prioritised in Northern Province, Kwa-Zulu Natal Province and Eastern Cape Province. These areas are licensed to utilities (either Eskom the national electricity or one of the currently licensed municipalities) in terms of Section 4 of the Electricity Act No.41/1987. Utilities are responsible to distribute electricity in respective licensed areas and will enter into service provider agreement withone of the pre-selected private sector Concessionaires (non-grid service providers) that are technically and financially competent to implement non-grid electrification in permission area within their large allocated areas of operation (concession areas)


The entire implementation process would be accountable to Local Government that is in the form of either District Councils or Local Municipalities and is responsible for co-ordination of Integrated Development Plans of their respective districts. The responsibility of either District Councils or Local Municipalities is founded in the Constitution of South Africa and the Municipal Structures Act.


The District Councils or Local Municipalities are envisaged to perform the following roles and responsibilities with regard to non-grid electrification:

·        To consider and integrate non-grid electrification in the Integrated Development Plans of areas that are uneconomical to be connected to grid electricity.

·        To monitor the implementation of the non-grid electrification programme.

·        To address disputes between customers and service providers of both grid and non-grid electrification.


Local Government/Municipalities do not have sufficient knowledge on concessions and technology to perform their expected roles and to advise consumers who are their primary subjects and address problems concerning the non-grid electrification programme arising within the concessions.


This project focuses on capacitating municipalities with the overall goal of ensuring effective service delivery and monitoring and evaluation in the concession areas. The novelty of the concessionaire delivery mode and involvement of local government calls for the training and education of municipalities.


Without the support, education and training of Local Government/Municipalities, the success of the implementation of non-grid electrification would be threatened.


The design component of this aspect will aim to capacitate municipalities on the rural electrification programme that is based on a concessionaire delivery model focusing on renewable energy within the non-grid system. This approach is new in the context of the National Electrification Programme of South Africa. The project will focus on:  (i) informing municipalities about DME energy policy; (ii) capacitating and informing municipalities about the Integrated National Electrification Programme focusing on non-grid electrification and energisation initiatives; (iii) capacitating municipalities on the implementation of non-grid electrification and renewable energy; (iv) to inform municipalities about the concessionaire model of implementing non-grid electrification; and (v) to enable municipalities to understand rural electrification issues and be in a position to participate through the Integrated Development Plans.



Supplying information for the development of IIEC Eco House Model

IIEC wanted to develop a software programme for 3 to 4 regions, which requires more or less similar solar passive design strategies to achieve indoor thermal comfort in houses.  This programme was going to be used to assist housing suppliers to make informed decisions regarding the basic costs and benefits of ‘eco’ housing.  Palmer Development Consulting assisted in determining which climatic regions should be grouped together through the use of GIS and a few calculations.


dT and amplitude ratio was used to determine which solar passive design strategies are required in the different climatic regions to achieve indoor thermal comfort in houses.  dT is the difference between the average indoor temperature and the average outdoor temperature in K (Kelvin).  In building design “amplitude” denotes the diurnal temperature swing expressed in K.  The amplitude ratio is the indoor amplitude for thermal comfort, divided by the outdoor amplitude.  When looking at the maps of South Africa, those areas with similar colours for ‘dT for thermal comfort’ and the ‘maximum permissible amplitude ratio’ will need similar design strategies.  The design strategies that should be used for the houses will be determined by the strictest amplitude ratio.  The map formed by an overlay of summer and winter amplitude ratio will indicate this.


It was recommended that

a)             The areas of maximum permissible amplitude ratios be consolidated into three to four national zones, showing where winter/summer is the determining design criterion.

b)             dT zones be consolidated into three to four national zones showing intermediate 2K intervals, and identifying where winter/summer is the determining design criterion.



Investigation into the use of indigenous medicinal plants

The use of traditional medicinal plants by men is as old as mankind. Practitioners of traditional medicine use medicinal plants and herbs to cure diseases and to heal injuries. There is increasing awareness by governments and the scientific communities of the importance of medicinal plants in the health systems. The South African government has acknowledged the importance of traditional healers in the delivery of health care systems in the country. In trying to find a solution to the scourge of HIV/AIDS the government and a host of scientific organisation have started to work with the practitioners of traditional medicine.


Commercialisation of traditional plants and herbs has led to a serious shortage and depletion of certain species of plants.  In the recent past there has been widespread concern from the environmentalists about the over-use of medicinal plants and deforestation of medicinal trees.  The purpose of the project was to identify scarce traditional medicinal plants and herbs. This exercise would have culminated in the investment and cultivation of such plants at Letlapa Pula. This project was part of the broader feasibility study called “Below the Road”. The farm Letlapa Pula, is situated in the Limpompo province. It is in Koedoeskop along the Brits/Thabazimbi Road just off the intersection of Warmbaths\Thabazimbi Road.


One of the overall objectives of the project was to ensure that the impoverished rural community of Koedoeskop shared directly in the benefits arising from the commercialization of the indigenous traditional medicine. It was also hoped to conserve and sustain the production and supply of such plants to the general practitioners of traditional medicine.


Distribution channel:

The distribution of traditional medicinal plants follow a pattern similar to that of ordinary consumer goods on the market. The only difference is that most of the plants and herbs used by the practitioners of traditional medicine are harvested by the gatherers in the forests free of charge. This has serious implications for the stock of indigenous traditional medicine.


Figure 11: Distribution channel of traditional medicinal plants


Producers                       Wholesalers                         Retailers                    End- users







·        Certain plant medicine is very scarce. A list with the names of plants, which have become scarce on the market was compiled. Certain kinds of plants and herbs are not easily accessible and they command high prices.

·        In order to deal with the problem of scarcity it is crucial that a multi-disciplinary and co-operative approach is used to develop sustainable use systems and ensuring the sharing of benefits.

·        Traditional healers always prefer to receive medicinal plants in their raw form. They buy it in the form of rough barks, roots, leaves, stem or bulbs from their suppliers.

·        Most traditional healers have similar fee structure. They charge “imvula s’khwama” or “imvula m’lomo” before consulting. This practice is also common with “izangoma”.  None of the practitioners interviewed committed himself or herself to the price they charge their patients.

·        Urban traditional healers and “izangoma’ do not have the capacity and time to go and harvest traditional plants in remote rural areas. For all their medicinal plants they are dependent on city markets specialising in indigenous plants and herbs.

·        Most of the practitioners interviewed felt strongly that all traditional medicinal plants have a crucial role to play and they cannot be substituted. However, others suggested a few alternative plants used which were also listed.

·         Wholesalers are harvesters at the same time. They harvest and gather their medicinal plants from all over the country and even from the neighbouring countries. It appears as if they do no pay any price for harvesting from the forests. Though in some instances they seek permission and pay a certain levy to farm owners to do this.

·         Wholesalers sell their plant medicine in bundles or in bags. They charge about R5.00 per bundle or R10.00 per bag.


The study has shown that there is a general shortage of certain indigenous plants. The resource base of indigenous plants is gradually shrinking. Government and other relevant parties should flesh out information on the endangered plant species and advice practitioners of traditional medicine on how to preserve such plants.


The following are some of the key recommendations

·              The need to educate practitioners of traditional medicine on how to cultivate medicinal plants.

·              The need to create and develop an agricultural sector, which will respond to the needs of the practitioners of traditional medicine.

·              The need to educate practitioners of traditional medicine about the dangers of environmental degradation.

·              The need to strengthen relations between the practitioners of traditional medicine, government departments and other relevant agencies.

·              The need to promote research into the use of traditional medicinal plants.

·              The need to provide technical support  to the harvesters and gatherers who supply traditional medicine to the traditional healers.



Sustainable Energy Policy Concepts (SEPCo) Workshop

PDC assisted with the organisation of the SEPCo Workshop in November 2002.  This included finding an appropriate venue and caterer for the workshop, organising all electronic equipment required for the workshop, finding facilitators for certain of the working sessions, sending out invitations and sorting out the logistics before and during the workshop.



ProBEC UNDP/GEF Proposal

During the Efficient Fundraising for Biomass Energy Training workshop PDC assisted ProBEC with the development of a Medium Sized project proposal and after the workshop PDC finalised the Project Concept Note for submission to UNDP/GEF.  Most of the information was already contained in the proposal PDC just had to incorporate all the suggestions made by the workshop participants to improve the proposal and change it according to the format given by UNDP/GEF for a Project Concept Note.  Additional information supplied by PDC was the dates when the project implementing countries ratified the UNFCCC and information about Southern African Development Community priorities, action plans and programmes. The project title is: Removing barriers to Biomass Energy Conservation in small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. The Concept Note included the following information.



Environmental Impact Monitoring of a dolomite quarry

Tiger Kloof Education Institution initiated a land claim to the Regional Land Claims Commissioner in the North West Province and Gauteng for portion 1 (Hutton), ChampionsKloof, remainder of portion 3, portion 1, portion 8 and portion 10 of the farm Waterloo 730, Vryburg District, North West Province.  Northern Cape Crushers is situated on portion 10 and portion 8 of the Farm Waterloo and presently owned and operated by Mr. R Olivier.  If the Land Claim was succesfull Tiger Kloof Education Institution intended to lease the quarry to the existing land owner. Part of the land claim was the monitoring of the ongoing social, environmental (natural environment) as well as the economic impact that the quarry has had on Tiger Kloof Education Institution and the land that forms part of the land claim.  This was done by Palmer Development Consulting.


Social impact

A survey was done using questionnaires and personal structured interviews.  Tiger Kloof Education Institution has 27 teachers, 5 or 6 families who are permanent residents on the school grounds and 360 learners of whom about 200 are boarding at the school.  A sample was taken out of each group.

·       The biggest concern about the quarry and its operation identified by the Rector, is the degradation of the natural environment and the danger it poses to all people involved.  This danger would include anyone falling into the quarry and the danger of flying rock. 

·       If the land claim is successful, one possible option is to turn the old girls hostel on Portion 3 of the farm Waterloo 730 into a primary school.  Should this conversion take place the impact would be severe because there is nowhere to evacuate children when there is a blast at the quarry, further, the impact of the vibrations on this building could be significant. 

·       The timing of warnings and blasts are not always accurate, often leaving learners and educators waiting

·       It further places restrictions on the learners’ recreational area

·       The impact of the dust on the learners’ and other people’s health is still unknown but is thought to be small.

·       The school could possibly attract a wider range of students if it offered environmental education

·       There are limits to expansion associated with the building and the quarry.  The school building cannot be extended in the direction of the quarry, as there is a minimum acceptable distance from the quarry – 100 meters

·       Figure 12 and Figure 13 show that the quarry and the blasting activities disturb most of the teachers and residents.


Figure 12 Percentage of teachers disturbed during classes


Figure 13 Percentage of residents bothered by the quarry


·       The teachers’ and residents’ biggest concern is not that it disturbs them but that the vibrations might be damaging the buildings

·       There is the nuisance factor of evacuating every time there is a blast

·       The blasts are frightening

·       The quarry has also had an affect on the learners’ sport or extramural activities.  The learners mostly reported that they had to stop their activities, move it somewhere else or delay their activities because of the blasting at the quarry.

·       28% of the boarders have reported that the quarry has bothered them during their study period.  They have to evacuate, loose time to study and loose concentration.


Environmental impact

The quarry possesses both negative and positive impacts (minerals wash into the soil adding to soil fertility) on the environment. A lot of the negative impacts are on a small scale and bound to happen at any excavations. However, the site for quarrying was poorly chosen due to the fact that it is situated on the edge of the Tiger Kloof and is bound to have a negative effect on the Kloof’s ecosystem. Furthermore, it also makes this natural area inaccessible for recreational purposes due to danger levels as well as effects of noise pollution.  Littering is also negatively influencing this recreational site.  Alternative management practices can however improve the current situation and prevent the loss of this natural site. 


Economic impact

There would only be an economic impact if the quarry had to close.  It is assumed that Northern Cape Masonry cannot operate independently of Northern Cape Crushers, which would mean that any decision made regarding the quarry would influence 56 – 59 people who are dependant on the quarry for employment.


The main conclusion was that there were not sufficient reasons to close the quarry from an environmental impact perspective.  It can only be suggested that the quarry remain open but the recommendation was that there should be an improvement in management practises.



Increasing the affordability and accessibility of LPG to the rural poor – Department of Minerals and Energy

The aim of the project was to compile a report containing an industry and pricing policy overview of the LPG sector in South Africa as well as recommendations regarding regulatory mechanisms contributing to the increase in access and affordability of LPG to low-income households.


The methodology selected was to follow the chain of LPG supply backwards from the end-user, up to the retailer, the supplier and the producer.  End-user interviews not only focused on the price of LPG but also on issues such as affordability, perceptions of LPG and appliance ownership and use.  In total, 61 end-user interviews and 23 retailer interviews were conducted in 4 provinces.


Households displayed a typical multiple fuel use pattern using electricity, LPG, wood, coal, IP and candles.  This is in line with fuel use practices in the majority of low-income households.  The end-uses of LPG differ according to income groups; with LPG use the highest in the two lowest income group as well as the highest income group. 


Figure 14: LPG use per income group

In terms of affordability, users identified the fact that gas is expensive as a problem, however, they also noted that despite the problems identified with the fuel, they are continuing to use it.  The 9kg cylinder was the most often used, there was a high level of awareness regarding cylinder ownership and only 8 households were found to own cylinders.  The reported average price per kilogram LPG per cylinder filled illustrated that 9kg cylinders are cheaper to fill than other cylinders.  Households reported using on average 18.2kg of LPG per month at an average cost of R140.00. 


Figure 15: Average price per kg LPG per cylinder size


Retailers sold LPG for 7.2 years on average and on average, LPG generated a third of retailer turnover.  LPG is regarded as a product with low sales volumes and lower profits than other product being sold, indicating that a low level of profit may cause retailers to stop selling LPG.  On average retailers reported paying R6.12 per kg and selling for R6.44 – a mark-up of 32c per kilogram.


Figure 16: Retailer mark-up per kilogram of LPG

Despite the fact that deregulation seems the international trend, indications are that political will is calling for LPG price regulation in South Africa.  The results of the literature study clearly indicated that attention to price, as a single issue will not result in increased affordability or accessibility of LPG.  It is recommended that price regulation should not be the only mechanism employed to achieve affordability.  Affordability is a combination of:

  • The LPGas Price
  • Safety
  • Availability
  • Deliverability
  • Fuel efficiency
  • Cost of cylinders and appliances
  • Appliance efficiency



Basa Njengo Magogo Pilot Study – Orange Farm

The “Basa Njengo Magogo” (BNM) project was implemented by Palmer Development Consulting (PDC) in co-operation with Dikepolana Consulting, O’Brian Advertising and MKX Admin services.  This pilot project was an attempt to reduce air pollution and improve ambient air quality by introducing a new method of lighting “braziers” and coal stoves by informing the community about and demonstrating this new fire lighting method to households and to verify the impacts of the method on coal savings as well as monetary savings.  The ultimate aim was to learn what processes in terms of awareness raising and communication work and what does not work with respect to changing community habits and to develop a detailed strategy for the eventual national roll out of this method to other coal burning residential areas.


The Basa Njengo Magogo low smoke fire lighting method formed part of the Department of Minerals and Energy’s (DME) implementation of an Integrated Clean Household Energy Strategy initiated to curb coal-based indoor and outdoor pollution and the resultant negative impact on health and the environment.


The BNM method has a direct impact on the combustion process of the coal, which results in a significant reduction in visible smoke and particulates.  Lighting a fire using this method in a brazier (also applicable to a coal stove) entails putting the coal first in the brazier, followed by newspaper, and then wood on top.  The paper and wood is lighted and when it is burning well, two handfuls of coal are added on top.  The idea is that the fire burns from the top down, affecting the combustion process of the coal in such a way that the smoke emitted by the coal is burnt as energy, and thereby reducing smoke emissions and increasing the efficiency by which coal is burnt.  Apart from a significant reduction in smoke, two additional benefits of the method is that the coal takes longer to burn out, therefore less coal is required and with the flames on top, cooking can start much earlier. 


This BNM method was first introduced by the Nova Institute, a South African NGO to the eMhalenhle community to overcome the debilitating impact of unhealthy indoor air.  The BNM method was named after an elderly lady, Granny Mashinini.  She represented one of ten households that the Nova company demonstrated the method to in the eMhalenhle township.  Nine of the households reported that the method did not work, but Granny Mashinini reported that she got the fire to burn after adding a handful of coal on top of the burning wood in the brazier. 


The political, social, technical and economic contexts of the area were taken into account for the introduction of the method.  Central to this, is that it is a people-centred approach, involving communities in the decision-making process, and taking a holistic approach rather than a project-based approach.  The pilot study concentrated on employing field workers from the Orange Farm project area, and there were in total 31 fieldworkers employed, of which 26 were female. 


O’Brian Advertising developed the marketing and awareness raising methodology, together with inputs from the project team.  The objectives of the marketing process were to create awareness for the new method, inform, demonstrate and campaign for the new method.  It was aimed to structure the tone of the message to be factual and straight-to-the-point, and to use an icon, in this case a Magogo herself.  MKX was allocated the task of facilitating liaison and communication with the leadership structure and meetings on various levels were organised in an attempt to disseminate information about the project.


An energy baseline study was conducted in the project areas of Finetown, Weiler’s Farm, Drezzik, Thulamntwana and Sweetwaters.  The aim of the baseline study was to provide background information regarding energy use and expenditure in general, and coal use in particular. 


The demonstrations were conducted by 10 teams of 3 people each.  Each team had to conduct at least 3 demonstrations per day.  Loud hailers and banners were used to catch people’s attention.  The first marketing and awareness phase of the project involved the piloting of the demonstration and marketing methodology.  115 demonstrations took place to reach the initial target of 1000 households, and a total of 1 422 individuals were reached.  During the second phase of the project, which was focussed on the rollout of the marketing methodology and conducting demonstrations of the method, 14 258 people were reached in the 192 demonstrations that took place.  During the second phase demonstrations were held at clinics, coal yards, shopping centres, on street corners, at Stratford station or at sport stadiums.  In total, 15 707 people were reached directly through the 307 demonstrations that were held. 


After attending demonstrations, 84% of respondents tried the method and 96% of respondents were still using the method after one week.  After a period of one month, 99% of respondents were still found to use the method.  On average, households reported saving R26 per week or 25 kilogram of coal.  The coal saving has a direct implication on the household budget, and on average, the households spend R104 per month on coal for 4 bags of coal in the 5 study areas.  Should the households save one bag per month by using the BNM method, they have at least saved R26 for that particular month.  In total, 76% of households reported less smoke in their homes while 67% of households reported less smoke in the streets after one month of using the method.


Figure 17: Percentage of households who noticed coal savings after a week of using BNM


Figure 18: Reported coal savings after a month of using BNM



Solar cooker market survey

A working hypothesis about a primary target market was developed for the purposes of in-depth consumer research.  It was decided to focus on consumers in the Living Standards Measure (LSM) groups 3-5.  A survey to determine the awareness and understanding of solar energy and solar cooking technology was conducted alongside mass demonstrations of such technology in LSM 3-5 communities.  This survey involved 200 random intercept interviews with respondents who displayed interest in the demonstrations.  Two smaller surveys were also conducted: one of community leaders and others who could influence the purchase of a particular product, and the other of those who were potential bulk purchasers.


The biggest and most critical survey, from which the most important conclusions concerning potential demand are drawn, is an in-depth study of the primary target market entitled, “The Renewable Energy Study”. This study involved a process of quantitative and qualitative interviews, product demonstrations and feedback, and in-household observation that lasted up to a full day with each respondent - the female member of household with primary responsibility for preparing meals.  Four hundred and fifty-four respondents were randomly selected according to a structured sample including households in LSMs 2-5 (broken down by LSM so that the differences between them could be analysed; LSM 2 was included for comparison).  These households were further segmented by province (interviews were conducted in six provinces), by age of respondent (according to the profile curve for the target market), the presence or absence of electricity in the home, and the type of community.  Importantly, samples were selected so that comparisons could be made between the presence or absence of electricity in the home in similar (rural) environments, and across environments (comparing non-electrified rural communities to non-electrified urban informal squatter settlements).


Results of the primary research can be summarised as follows:


·          Consumers use more than one household energy technology for cooking.  They aspire to electricity, but cannot afford to use it, even if the household is electrified with sufficient capacity to cook.  The issue of any fuel cost is paramount. 


·          In LSMs 3-5, approximately 10% are using gas, but, in general, these consumers are unhappy with gas for safety reasons.  A larger percentage, approximately half in LSMs 3-5, are using paraffin, which while not as negatively perceived as gas, is still problematic for health and safety reasons.  It is used primarily because it is relatively inexpensive and safer choices are not available. 


·          In addition to paraffin, the more affluent and electrified households in these LSM groups are also using coal, and the less affluent and non-electrified households are using wood.  There is a very real opportunity for solar energy to take its place alongside these latter two fuel sources at the expense of gas and paraffin. 


·          There is a high awareness of, understanding of, and positive attitude towards solar energy as a household energy source, even though it is not currently being used as such.  The strong willingness to consider solar technology (91% of those in the survey sample showed a positive predisposition to solar energy for cooking) rests on the fact that there are not fuel costs and it is safe to use.  It is not seen as a “poor person’s option”.  Its dependence on sunshine and its relatively slow cooking speed are, however, seen as negatives.


·          There is also an opportunity for more fuel efficient wood and coal burning stoves both to replace current less efficient wood and coal stoves, at the expense of paraffin and gas. 


·          Any approach to developing renewable household energy should be holistic and incorporate all such technologies.  This is because solar can never be the primary household cooking technology in an LSM 3-5 household.  Its usage is limited by the availability of sunshine.  Consumers will continue to use more than one energy source. 


Supply analysis:  Meeting the demand in a commercially viable way

Besides the dominance of certain individual energy forms, the end-user is also influenced by the utilisation of already existing energy carriers through strong branding such as IP (Industrial Paraffin) or simply familiarity. Subsidised products and the low cost of conventional energy such as coal, IP and also, to some extent, electricity in the targeted income bracket determine the affordability of energy carriers. The fuel cost for one meal portion with electricity is 82 cents as compared to 15 cents for paraffin and 30 cents for coal (SA average).  Where the existing suppliers have a competitive advantage, the opposite situation exists for suppliers of R/A appliances.  At present there is no product supply, familiar to the consumer, and characterised by depth and continuity of supply in the R/A energy cooking technology industry. The lack of entrepreneurial drive to supply in this area corresponds with lack of business advice specifically for the sector of R/A energy technology. As a result, the lack of a branded product or a branded distribution network has never been thought through from a commercial perspective. The appliances have always been distributed as “clean technologies” with the aim of reducing CO2 emission and air pollution. But, as the demand analysis has shown, the users’ priority is cooking in an efficient manner. Other features of a cooking appliance are not considered priorities. The brands Sunstove or Vesto are sold because customers see them as fuel efficient and time-saving. Their ability to deliver “clean energy” is not a priority for the buyer.


R/A energy cooking technology currently occupies a niche in the market. But even within this niche the players and producers have difficulties because the playing field is not level.  Investors, enablers and supporters of R/A energy cooking technology have to be careful not to distort the market and impede the proliferation of a variety of products. The interest in one supplier can easily undermine the efforts of other suppliers. Subsidies or investment offered to one product may well amount to manipulation of the market and disregard the commercial principles, which we consider to be of utmost importance in promoting R/A energy cooking technology on a mass basis.


Routes to the market

The purpose of this section of the business case was to identify all the potential routes to market in South Africa, to describe them, discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses, and highlight key issues. 



Review of the effectiveness of energy subsidies and related taxation policies in South Africa

Energy subsidies are not new in South Africa.  Sasol, Eskom, the nuclear industry and the liquid fuels industry have benefited from subsidies in one form or another.  Subsidies are employed as policy instruments to achieve specific policy objectives.  However, government has a responsibility to ensure that policies and measures designed to benefit the poor, to provide basic services to the poor or to increase equity should be effective and efficient. 


The aim of the research was to assist the government of South Africa to review its approach to energy subsidies in line with the goals specified in The Energy White Paper (1998) and the proposed White Paper on Renewable Energy. Specific attention had to be given to assessing the impact of:


  • The VAT zero-rating of illuminating paraffin since April 2001 and the role-out of free basic electricity (an in some areas solar energy) to assist low-income households;
  • The diesel fuel levy concession on the competitiveness and profitability of the agriculture, mining and fishing industries; and
  • The health, safety and environmental impact of such subsidies.


Energy subsidies are used internationally as instruments of public policy.  Their objectives range from social and regional issues to environmental and technological ones.  From a theoretical point of view, subsidies are justified on the basis of market failures that lead to sub-optimal outcomes and/or on the basis of social and environmental policy considerations.  Energy subsidies, however, have the tendency to be expensive policy instruments and often become pervasive.


In the analyses of the different energy subsidies and their estimated monetary values in South Africa, the study found that the total of South African subsidies for 2003/04 amounts to R2.46 billion with the national electrification programme receiving the largest portion, namely R1.03 billion.  The report concludes that South African subsidies are reasonable in comparison to subsidies in the EU.


Illuminating Paraffin

IP is mostly used in the household sector and more than 70 percent of IP sold by the oil industry was to dealers supplying the household market.  IP is the dominant fuel in the lower LSM groups and 58 percent of households in LSM 2 and 54 percent in LSM 3 use IP for cooking in 2003.  IP is a widely used fuel but not necessarily a well-liked fuel.  Externalities associated with IP use is extremely high, even when the debatable value of life calculations are ignored and only externalities related to ingestion and pollution taken into account. 


IP is zero-rated for VAT since April 2001 and a single maximum national retail price was instituted from April 2003. A field survey was undertaken to establish if retailers adhere to the SNMRP and to determine if the price saving that should have theoretically resulted from the VAT zero-rating was passed on to the consumer.  In total, 331 retailers were interviewed in 6 provinces from deep rural, rural, urban and metropolitan areas.  It was found that 84.7 percent of retailers in deep rural areas were selling IP above the SNMRP, 44.1 percent in rural areas, 72.2 percent in urban areas and 49.1 percent in metropolitan areas were selling above the SNMRP.  For all retailers off which pricing information for 2001 could be obtained, it was observed that all retailers increased their prices of IP between March (prior to VAT removal) and April (after VAT removal).  It was therefore concluded that the benefit of zero-rating was not passed on to the consumer and that the majority of retailers were selling IP above the SNMRP. 


The impact of the removal of VAT on the selling price of paraffin was also investigated.  For all retailers for which data was available, it was observed that the price of paraffin increased from March to April 2001, confirming the previous mentioned statement that the benefit of zero rating of VAT was not carried over to the end user.  In fact it looks like it was rather seen as an opportunity for retailers to make a larger profit.



In summary, the following information is relevant for the diesel concession:

  • Diesel consumption in the country is 6 300 000 kl (DME, Energy Balances, 2000);
  • Diesel consumption for agriculture and mining is estimated at 35 percent of the total consumption or 2 205 000 kl (SAPIA Annual Report, 2001);
  • Diesel refunds amount to R460 million for the year 2002/03;
  • Refund 33.68c/lit and price R3.6/lit.  Hence per cent change in the price is 9.3 percent; and
  • With an estimated price elasticity of –0.25 we induce an increase in consumption of 2.3 percent or 31 413 kl.  With the cost of externality at 0.16R/pKm or R1.6/lit (assuming a consumption of 10l/100 km) the total externality equals R50 261 256.


Consequently, the total diesel concession cost is estimated at R510.2 million.


Subsidising a fuel is less effective if that fuel is being used in an inefficient and dangerous appliance.  Subsidisation of fuel should not be the objective, but rather ensuring that the useful energy available to households is adequate.  Efficiency of energy appliances should therefore be addressed as a matter of urgency.  An essential starting point would be to ensure that energy efficient design principles are incorporated in housing design, especially low-cost houses since the fuel savings due to improved thermal efficiency impact dramatically on poor households.  It is recommended that basic energy efficiency design principles should be a requirement of all new housing designs by law.



Formulation, implementation and evaluation of the marketing of JI Zero Energy Houses

Palmer Development Consulting and O’Brian Advertising implemented this project.  The project was aimed at the target audience of local and provincial government officials in a position to influence the decision-making process regarding housing planning, delivery and policy.  The aim was to raise awareness at this level of government because numerous activities had been launched in the past with national government as the target audience while the housing delivery process is actually implemented at local (municipal) and provincial level.


PDC was requested to evaluate the IIEC Housing for a Healthier Future Marketing Plan report. After the evaluation of the report, the following recommendations were formulated:

·              The role of marketing within the project needs to be defined;

·              Clear and concise communication or marketing objective need to be articulated;

·              Target audiences need to be also specified, and a marketing message developed e.g. a positioning statement or a key selling benefit that flows from the product (in this case, a concept);

·              Lastly a well-structured and integrated plan has to be developed


Stakeholder identification and engagement

One of the first activities was to identify individuals dealing with housing matters at local and provincial government level.  A database was compiled containing information of individuals from national housing institutions, provincial heads of housing departments, provincial housing developers and contractors, project contacts and decision makers.  In total 338 contacts were collected and included in the database.  Stakeholder engagement was approached in two ways.  Firstly, key meetings were identified and arranged and secondly, meetings were attended as requested by stakeholders.  It was decided that it would be key to meet with the Parliamentary Portfolio Committees (PPC) on Housing and Energy.  The PPC on Housing found the presentations interesting and the concept of energy efficient housing design was not foreign to them.  Two provincial and one municipal forum requested a meeting and presentation.  Input was provided at the Fifth Session, Second Legislature, Gauteng Provincial Legislature 6 March 2003.  The most fruitful collaboration however, was with the Limpopo province where three meetings were attended, one with the MEC for Housing, one with the Polokwane municipality and one with the municipality and housing developers contracted to deliver low-cost houses under existing municipal contracts.


Campaign development

It was decided that the “core message” should focus on the benefits (health, financial, environmental & comfort) of energy efficiency in low-cost housing.  The objective is to create awareness with decision makers, politicians, communities and stakeholders who are part of the low cost (LC) housing process of the benefits (health, financial, environmental and comfort) of the concept, which has been developed and implemented in the IIEC Housing for a Healthier Future Project.  The ultimate aim is that replicability within the process is achieved or in other words, that the concept is also applied in other LC Housing schemes and plans.  It was agreed that a project identity was required.  The central theme of the identity would also be used in the design of the information brochure, poster and information cd. and website.  Two press releases were prepared by the marketing company and submitted to the general press.  An article was published in the Engineering News, and Marlett Wentel was interviewed by and architectural magazine Roof and Wall. 


Marketing and publicity activities

The first activity was to distribute the information brochures as widely as possible.  Brochures were mailed to contacts on the database as well as delivered to key departments for display and distribution from their libraries or media centres.  In total, around 700 brochures were distributed.  The website was finalised and went live on 10 October 2004.  The website can be accessed by following the next steps:  go to then go to related links - the last one on the links page is called EEHD web site/ Energy Efficient Housing Design. 


National Information Session

During the project planning phase it was envisaged that workshops will be held on a provincial basis, when requested by provincial stakeholders.  It soon transpired that workshops would only be possible at provincial level once a much longer and thorough process has been completed.  The information session took the form of specific presentations combined with an exhibition of energy efficient materials and technologies.  330 invitations were posted to Housing, Energy, Environment and Health National and Provincial departments as well as Local Government.  Members of the Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa were also invited through the SESSA Network.  Producers of energy efficient materials were invited to exhibit their products during the information session. 


The two most important results of the project were:

  • The result of the Limpopo meetings was that the municipal and provincial specifications for housing standards would be changed to incorporate energy efficient housing design principles;
  • According to the representative of the Department of Housing, the South African government is adopting the Energy Efficient Housing concept into it’s Low Cost Housing Policy


Increased use of renewable energy resources program - Winrock

Winrock International has a cooperative agreement with the U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for the Increased use of Renewable Energy Resources Project.  One of the aims of USAID is to increase understanding of the positive environmental benefits that can be attained, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, through expanded deployment of renewable energy. Other benefits can accrue, including an improved balance of payments by reducing the need to import fossil fuels, an increase in jobs locally as indigenous renewable energy resources are exploited, and increased access to reliable electricity for inhabitants of rural areas as "new" technologies are made available in an affordable fashion.


PDC was been contracted by Winrock to provide specific industry related information as part of a synthesis report published every 3 months containing renewable energy market information form 7 countries.


Mozambique Natural Gas questionnaire and database

PDC was subcontracted by PDG to develop a questionnaire for a household energy survey and natural gas scoping study in the Amatola District in Mozambique.  The questionnaire covered socio-economic information of households, fuel consumption, appliance use, awareness of natural gas as a fuel source, interest in gas powered community facilities and willingness to pay for services delivered by natural gas.  PDC also developed a user-friendly Microsoft Access database for data capturing and analyses.



Quantifying benefits of energy efficient house design through specified air quality and household energy activity monitoring.


The objective of the study was to ascertain the advantages of energy efficient demonstration houses with regard to their energy-efficiency and socio-economic aspects.  Monitoring was carried out in two of four project areas where the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs financed the design and construction of 16 low-cost energy-efficient houses.  Monitoring activities included air quality (measuring methane, O2, CO2, CO and H2S at ten-minute intervals) as well as intensive monitoring of household energy activities and inhabitant behaviour on a daily basis.  Energy efficient houses as well as control houses selected to match the profile (socio-economic and energy consumption and expenditure) of energy efficient households were monitored.


Prior to air quality monitoring, a baseline study interviewing households, energy suppliers, clinics; health centres and local authorities was carried out in the project areas.  The aim of the baseline study was to select control houses, determine general energy use patterns, gain an overview of the perception, level of knowledge and acceptance of energy efficient housing and to determine the incidence of respiratory disease, fires and burns per area.


In total, 6 energy efficient houses and 8 control group houses were monitored during the course of the project.  Air quality monitoring was done with a portable data logger measuring methane, Oxygen (O2), Carbon dioxide (CO2,), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) at ten-minute intervals.  The alarm settings of the data logger were switched to maximum in order to continue with measurements even if alarm conditions occurred.  The high and low alarm settings for all the sensors were set at the same level.  For methane it was at 90% LEL, O2 was at 10.00 vol. %, CO was at 200 ppm, CO2 was at 3.00 vol.% and H2S was at 50 ppm.  Air quality monitoring continued for a period of 7 days during the winter of 2004.


In terms of the reductions in household greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions it can be concluded that a small reduction in CO2 is achieved in an energy efficient house.  However, the reduction achieved is dependent on the type of fuel used for space heating – if the EEH is using a more polluting fuel (for example paraffin) than the control house (using for example electricity), CO2 savings may not be detectable.

Secondly, regarding improvement in local and indoor air quality and thus a reduction in the incidence of respiratory disease, households in Lady Grey responded positive to questions regarding a reduction in the frequency of illness and children coughing in winter. This would indicate that the perception exists that an EEH may be healthier than a normal house.

With regard to the improvement in overall quality and comfort of the dwelling, inhabitants of the energy efficient house in Lady Grey found the dwelling more comfortable in both winter and summer, while Benoni EEH only found the house cooler in summer.  In conclusion, the study found that households reported a positive improvement in the overall comfort of the dwelling. 


Solar cooker use and impact summary study – GTZ

PDC was commissioned to complete a summary study for the GTZ/DME solar cooker field test on solar cooker use rates and associated impacts. 


The estimated number of people cooking with solar was determined by available solar cooker sales figures.  Between January 1999 and March 2002 about 1,000 solar stoves of various models have been sold within the framework of the SCFT (See Table 1, below). Approximately 90% were sold in South Africa, the remaining balance in other African countries, notably neighbouring ones (GTZ and DME, 2002).  Sales channels were retailers, the SCFT office, and the Sunstove organisation.


Table 1:  Sales of solar stoves within the framework of the SCFT in South Africa and other African countries, 1999 to first quarter 2002





2002 Q1








































Source: SCFT


The total number of people cooking with solar energy by 2004 is therefore estimated to be 7331.  This figure is however, not adjusted for cookers that may be broken beyond repair and therefore no longer functional.  During a field trip in December 2004 to the original 3 test areas, (Kitzinger, 2004), 22% of the inspected cookers were found to be non-functional – however, these cookers have been in the field for 8 years.  If it is assumed that only cookers beyond the expected life span of 5 years (GTZ and DME, 2002) are broken beyond repair, only the sales figure available for 1999 (including an estimated 2000 Sunstoves sold by 1999) should be adjusted, indicating about 454 cookers no longer functional.  If the total of 7331 people cooking with solar is adjusted to account for 22% non-functional cookers after a life expectancy of 5 years, an estimated 6777 people are potentially still cooking with solar cookers.  However, it was further calculated that on average, 17% of respondents stop using their solar stoves after purchase (see section 0 below), therefore indicating a total number of 5624 people using solar power for cooking after adjusting the figure.


Solar cooker use rates

In summary, the studies consulted reflected varying solar cooker use rates:


Table 2:  Average use rates from consulted studies

Study name and date

Average use rate

Phase 1 end-user acceptance (1997)


Ex-post purchase (2000)


Additional inquiries (2002)


First telephone interview (2002)


Latest telephone interview (2004)


MSA study for business case (2003)



If the average reported use rates for the various studies are accepted, an average use rate of 31% is indicated.  The standard deviation is 5.6%.  Therefore, if it is accepted that solar cooker use rates are over-reported rather than under reported, solar cooker use rates can be accepted to be between 31% and 25%.  The confidence interval of 95% indicates that it can be 95% sure that use rates are between 37.67% (average plus standard deviation) or 25.67% (average minus standard deviation).


Four of the studies consulted yielded information on the percentage of users who are no longer using their solar stoves:


Table 3:  Non-use of solar cookers


% respondents reporting zero use

Average period of solar cooker ownership

Ex-post purchase


52 months

First telephone interview


14.5 months

MSA study for business case


48 months but most non-users disposed of their stoves after 24 months

Latest telephone interview


Not available


Using the available data, it was calculated that on average, 17% of purchasers/owners of solar stoves stop using them after about 1.5 years after purchase (although the time period after which use stops should be treated with caution since very little data is available to base calculations on).



Savings associated with solar cooker use

To determine solar cooker use rates and resulting energy savings is a notorious difficult task.  User behaviour are influenced by a number of aspects, fluctuate over time and quite simple can often not be adequately explained, for example, a solar stove buyer in Huhudi was struggling with her stove payments, had only used the stove about 3 times in 6 months but was completely unwilling to give up the stove and have her money returned since she felt strongly that she will use the stove in future. 


Fuel savings

Table 4 provides the results for the corresponding total average (over all users and all fuel types), during the first phase of the solar cooker field test,  stating that the overall fuel savings were 38%. During the placement period, test users saved almost 60 tons of wood, more than 2 tons of gas, and over 2000 liters of paraffin (GTZ and DME, 2002).


Table 4:  Average savings for all fuels by households


Savings (%)














Unweighted total average



Weighted total average





Source: SCFT


Individual fuel savings can also be seen in Table 4 with the highest percentage savings achieved for gas (57%), wood (36%) and paraffin (33%) in descending order.


User studies during phase 2 (PDC, 2002) indicated that the fuel most saved by households using their solar stoves was electricity (26), gas (11) and paraffin (4).  The majority of respondents reported some form of fuel savings.


Monetary savings

The results for the average monetary savings during the first phase of the field test were not homogeneous for the three test areas. Savings are highest in Huhudi, where fuels are mostly bought and the township is electrified, and lowest in Onseepkans, where collected wood is an important fuel source. Pniel with its intermediate fuel mix falls in-between. For details see Table 5.


Table 5:  Average monetary savings by households in the three test areas









Weighted average all fuel saving (%)




Average monthly fuel expense (ZAR)




Average monthly fuel savings (ZAR)




Source: SCFT


Although monetary savings were highest in the areas using commercial fuels, time- savings can be achieved through the use of solar stoves.  Two potential time-savings associated with the introduction of solar cooking are time saving which results from the reduction in wood gathering and potential time savings to be gained in the actual cooking process itself. 


The phase 2 end-user report (PDC, 2002) found that 28 out of 54 respondents reported monetary savings – 52% of the sample.  On average, respondents reported monthly savings of R110.  It is often difficult for respondents to know exactly how much they are saving and of the 28 respondents reporting savings, 7 could not quantify the savings. Savings were reported between R20 and R100 with an average monthly saving of R45.  Huhudi respondents saved mostly paraffin (4), gas (3) and electricity/wood (2)[1].


The ex-post purchase study (synopsis and PDC, 2000) did not investigate savings specifically, but when asked why respondents had bought a solar cooker (independent of the model), the most cited reasons were monetary savings in fuel expenses and convenience (time savings, unattended cooking and having an additional “fuel” source):


In summary, from the studies containing reports on savings, the majority of solar stove owners reported savings, while the average reported monthly savings between the three studies is R68.  It is often difficult for users to estimate savings achieved through the use of a solar cooker since savings depend on a wide variety of issues such as fuel use, frequency of cooking and type of food cooked.


Time savings

Since it is mainly women who do the cooking in the household, it is mainly their time that is being saved by using a solar cooker.  There are two potential time saving elements associated with the use of a solar cooker:

·        Time savings which results from the reduction in wood gathering;

·        Potential time-savings in the actual cooking process itself.


Although most solar stoves cook slower that fuel stoves, they require very little attention once the food is in the stove.  Fred from the time-consuming tasks of cooking and wood collection, women may concentrate more on childcare and domestic activities, training and educational programmes, social networking (an important rural livelihood strategy), as well as leisure (PDG, 1997.  Where children are the main wood gatherers, time saved can be spent on schoolwork or play.


During phase 1, time saved from reduced wood collection because of solar cookers was calculated as 36%.  Since households spend on average, three hours collecting wood per trip, in theory, families can save up to 33 hours per month if they collected fuel on a daily basis prior to using a solar cooker.  Time saved through cooking using a solar stove was calculated as follows:  a family saves 15 minutes in supervision time per solar cooked meal, this amounts on average to 5 hours per month (PDG, 1997).


During phase 2, saving time by using a solar cooker was reported by 44% of the respondents.  On average, respondents saved between 18 and 26 hours per month by using a solar stove.  Time saved is influenced by a variety of factors such as the type of fuel being used, the length of time they would normally cook on their stove or open fire (which also depends on the type of food cooked) and how many meals are cooked per month.


Impacts on poverty reduction

Where fuelwood shortages encourage the use of fossil fuels for cooking, this aggravates poverty and impacts negatively on local economies.  The economic benefits associated with time-savings can be significant if the time is spent on productive, income generating activities.  Since it is primarily women who are involved in cooking and woodfuel collection, the potential for economic benefits depends on the opportunities available for increasing earnings and output.  The impact of solar stoves on the household economy is dependent on the organisation of the household economy and the extent to which the household is linked to the wider economic network.  In 2 of the original test areas (Pniel and Onseepkans), solar cookers became a valuable resource for social networks, as information on solar cookers and the preparation of food was exchanged.  Savings achieved through the use of the solar stoves were invested in more food, which were shared amongst the organised cooking groups.  These cooking groups increased food security as well as variety in the daily diet.  Other economic benefits can be summarised as:

·        Money saved was given to schools;

·        Increased contributions to churches was recorded;

·        Other organisations such as women’s groups, savings clubs and clinics benefited from household savings;

·        In Onseepkans, time saved became increased labour time for subsistence agriculture;

·        In Pniel, increased time and increased savings was spent on transport to enable greater access to centres seeking job opportunities;

·        In Huhudi, hawkers saved money to buy fuel and food to sell.


Phase 2 confirmed the potential development impacts of phase 1.  Respondents reported that time savings were utilised in some productive activities while monetary savings were used for school fees, improved food stuffs such as vegetables and meat.  De Lange and Wentzel (2002) noted that solar stoves improve household energy provision, which in turn can reduce poverty and improve quality of life.  Solar stoves were found to improve household energy provision in the following ways:

·        In poorer households where a larger percentage of monthly income is spent on fuels, more money is available for buying other fuels, thereby enlarging the fuel mix available for the household;

·        Besides enlarging the fuel mix, solar stoves also increase energy security.  Once the household owns a solar stove, they will always be able to cook (as long as the sun is shining);

·        Money saved, which would have been spent on energy, is now available for other things;

·        By cooking with a solar stove, fossil fuels or electricity are available for other activities or energy end-uses.  For example, instead of using paraffin for cooking, it can be used for lighting;

·        Foods that require a long cooking time use a lot of fuel, so they are ideally suited for solar cooking (e.g. maize porridge, soup, beans, samp and baking bread).


4.4.6        Income generation potential of solar cookers

During the course of the DME/GTZ solar cooker field test, attempts were made to determine if solar cookers can have an income generating function.  However, since income generation was never a primary focus of the programme, activities were never undertook on a large scale and the recorded evidence of solar cookers used for income generation is therefore scant.  The first example was during the year-long field test when one of the large solar cookers were placed with Mrs Sebola, a tavern/shebeen owner in Huhudi (PDG, 1997).  She used the cooker to prepare meals, which she sold in her shebeen, the main business of which was selling beer.  As a businesswoman she immediately realised that she was saving money with the use of her solar cooker and she was the only person in the field test to opt to spend R1000 to buy the cooker at the end of the test period.


During the second phase of the programme, an agreement was reached with the Taxi Association in Rustenburg whereby a number of street hawkers/vendors who sell food at taxi ranks tested the use of solar cookers in their businesses.  In total 3 hawkers participated but the solar cookers were found to be of limited use to them in their food selling business (GTZ, 2001).   Despite the fact that the hawkers immediately understood the energy savings associated with the use of a solar cooker, the following factors made it difficult to fully incorporate the use of a solar cooker in their daily selling activities:

  • Solar cookers were not suited to the type of foods that the hawkers prepared, for example fried sausages and deep-fried vetkoek;
  • Hawkers require a high turn over of food to supply their customers and the solar cookers were experienced as too slow to supply the dishes in the required time;
  • The capacity of the solar cookers were found to be too small and that fact that a solar cooker can only use one pot at a time (especially the fast parabolic cooker) made it difficult for hawkers to prepare the volume of food required;
  • Solar cookers are bulky devices and not easily transported via taxi, the mode of transport that the hawkers have to rely on;
  • The solar cookers could not be left at the taxi rank since there was no storage pace available that the hawker could use.


At the end of the study, the hawkers agreed that although the idea of solar cookers were good, they were not really appropriate for their businesses and the field test concluded that solar cookers have a limited potential to be used by street vendors for income generation purposes. Outside the field test, limited activities have explored the potential of using solar cookers for income generation purposes.  One example is a solar powered bakery established in the Eastern Cape by Sun Ovens International.  A village size Sun Oven with LPG back-up was installed to employ HIV positive women to bake bread (SCI, 2004).  


CDM Methodologies for Methane capture and utilisation


PDC was appointed by Nuplanet to investigate CDM Methodologies for Methane capture and utilisation.  The project outlined the requirements to be fulfilled in the project design document with regard to methodologies, choosing a baseline and a monitoring methodology.  No specific methodologies have thus far been developed or approved for the capture and utilization of coal mine methane, but methodologies have been approved for the capture of landfill methane, natural gas and other biogas.  The following methodologies have been approved.  The report described the approved methodologies and outlined where it could be relevant to coal bed methane projects.


Preparing a strategy and implementation plan for a national roll-out of the Basa Njengo Magogo programme

The Department of Minerals and Energy’s Low-smoke Fuels Programme was initiated as an outcome of a stakeholder workshop held in Soweto during 1994.  Comprehensive literature studies were followed by laboratory scale technical investigations, mainly on the impact of coal on the environment, the potential of Low-smoke Fuels and community socio-economic studies.  These were followed by a large-scale experiment in the town of Qalabotjha, where residents used approximately 200 tonnes of Low-smoke Fuels over a 20-day period during the winter of 1997.  The main outcome of that investigation was that Low-smoke Fuels, inter alia, have a role to play in reducing air pollution to acceptable levels.  This led to the formulation of an Integrated Household Clean Energy Strategy, which incorporates, among others, measures such as the low-smoke generating top-down ignition of coal fires (Basa Njengo Magogo – method), Low-smoke Fuels manufacture and distribution and Housing insulation and design, as well as also in the longer term measures such as cleaner fuels (liquids & gases) and stoves.

Notwithstanding the access to electricity, coal still remains the fuel of preference for cooking and space heating for most low-income households in the central Highveld region.  The main reasons are that coal is the lowest priced energy available in this region and that coal has the desired characteristic of extended heat release, required for space heating.  Approximately 1 million households consume just over 1 million tonnes of coal per annum, most of which is burnt during winter.  This leads to excessive concentrations of air pollution that have measurable negative impacts on health.  Increased morbidity and mortality have been attributed to these high levels of coal-based air pollution in residential areas.  Studies in the Vaal Triangle have shown that children exposed to coal smoke have an approximately ten fold higher incidence of respiratory tract disease than children living nearby and not exposed to smoke.  It has been calculated that the costs to state funded health care programmes could be of the order of approximately R455 million per year. This amount is only the state’s cost and does not represent the total health and environmental cost to society, which is believed to be much larger.  The poor who can least afford it, carry most of this ill-health burden.


The Integrated Household Clean Energy Strategy

Continued electrification of residential areas is ongoing and the full use of electricity for all household energy requirements remains the ultimate long-term solution to the problem.  However, electricity is more expensive than coal and its price is rising.  Also more expensive appliances are needed to exploit electricity.

An alternative is offered in the Integrated Household Clean Energy Strategy, which was approved by the Minister of Minerals and Energy as a transitory measure between coal and full use of electricity.  It has three thrusts, namely:

·        Marketing and awareness of the low-smoke generating top-down ignition of coal fires (“Basa Njengo Magogo”);

·        Manufacturing and distribution of Low-smoke Fuels; and

·        Implementation of housing insulation and design.

Phase 1:          Basa Njengo Magogo

The top-down ignition of household coal fires is the least-cost option.  It has the potential to reduce the smoke emissions of a conventional coal fire by up to 50%.  During 2003 the Department of Minerals and Energy commissioned a pilot scale Basa Njengo Magogo project in Orange Farm and surroundings as a first step in implementing the Strategy (Figure 1).  The purpose of this pilot was to ascertain what processes are required for the success in promoting this new fire-lighting technology, and what to avoid.

Apart from producing significantly less smoke (Figure 2), the Basa Njengo Magogo technology is quicker to ignite (implying that cooking and heating can be enjoyed in a relatively short space of time compared with the long-wait when using the other conventional method), it burns longer for the same amount of coal and has been shown to use approximately 20% less fuel.


Phase 2:          Low-smoke Fuels

Low-smoke Fuels have been shown in the Department of Minerals and Energy’s macro-scale experiment in the Township of Qalabotjha, to reduce the particulate pollution from coal combustion by up to 50%.  However, the manufacture of low-smoke fuels is inherently more costly that raw coal.  Therefore some support will be required in this regard.  The Department is currently addressing this matter as the second phase of the Integrated Household Clean Energy Supply.


Phase 3:          Housing insulation

Insulation of houses reduces energy consumption.  Generally, in an informal home where the walls are properly sealed, up to 60% of the heat-loss is through the roof.  By merely installing a ceiling, significant advantages accrue to the household.  The amount of coal needed for space heating is reduced, money used to buy energy is saved, pollution is reduced and other quicker but cleaner fuels, such as electricity, paraffin and gas become more affordable options for space heating.  Although this measure has great potential in changing the type of fuels required, it is not ready for implementation yet as suitable (efficient and safe) and affordable insulation material still has to be researched/developed.  Its scheduled implementation is during 2006.



The three phases of the Integrated Household Clean Energy Strategy is to be implemented over a number of years, starting with the least-cost phase (Figure 3).


Results of 2003 Basa Njengo Magogo Demonstrations

A pilot project was conducted in the area of Orange Farm and environs during the winter of 2003.  A total of 307 demonstrations were held reaching a total of 19 425 households directly and indirectly.  The project exceeded expectations, and the up-take of the methodology/technology is summarised in Table 1.


Table 1:  Technology Up-Take Summary

Tried technique after demonstration


Successful endeavours


Still in use after one week


Still in use after one month



The primary purpose of the programme is to reduce levels of air pollution and consequently the associated negative impacts.  Although no pollution measurements were made during this project, approximately 76% of residents stated that they subjectively noticed less smoke after one month of use.  Moreover, approximately 67% of households noticed less smoke in the street.


It was observed that the Basa Njengo Magogo technology resulted in savings of coal.  This is brought about mainly as the smoke (unburnt coal) is now burnt.  Approximately 88% of households reported savings.  Most households reported saving half a 25 kg bag of coal per week.  Approximately 92% of households used to make fire twice a day, but now needed to make a fire only once per day.  The above translates into a saving of approximately R26 per household per month. Moreover, because of the nature of the Basa Njengo Magogo technology, the fire was usually ready for cooking within approximately 20 minutes, a considerable advantage over the approximately 45 minutes over the more common methodology.



National Roll-out of Basa Njengo Magogo

Currently there are four projects underway to disseminate the low-smoke ignition of fire technique, namely:








“Basa Njengo Magogo”

Orange Farm and environs

Department of Minerals & Energy



“Basa Mama”


Sasol InfraChem



“Basa Magogo”


Sasol Synfuel



“Basa Mama no Shield[2]


Sasol InfraChem


Only the first of these is sponsored by the DME.


Other groups have also shown an interest to become involved in disseminating the technology. These include Samancor, Sasol, Iscor, Church Groups, Mpumulanga Provincial Government, International Donors, Johannesburg Metro.


With so many parties pursuing the same end, it is foreseen that the dissemination of the technology could become disorganised, the target audience confused, and incorrect or inferior information propagated.  Hence, there is a requirement to manage this activity on a national basis and co-ordinate the various roleplayers.  Moreover, the current pilot projects have found that giving the technology dissemination programme a national government backing will eliminate the local political hurdles that could threaten the success of the programme.



The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in to ensure effective follow-up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED); to monitor and report on implementation of the Earth Summit agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. The mandate of the commission was reaffirmed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002


The United Nations Division for Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) has requested national focal points to submit country reports as a contribution to the Secretary General’s Report for CSD 14, which focuses on the thematic cluster of Industrial Development, Climate Change Air Pollution/Atmosphere and Energy for Sustainable Development


PDC was contracted to draft the South African country report to the Commission, which reports on the progress made in the implementation of Agenda 21 with regard to the review, evaluation and monitoring processes.  It specifically focuses Industrial Development, Climate Change Air Pollution/Atmosphere and Energy for Sustainable Development.  The key elements of the CSD-12 Report include a reflection on lessons learnt, best practice, the identification of actions, opportunities and constraints to the implementation of sustainable development and to the formulation of the NSDS.




1.         Air pollution/Atmosphere and Climate Change


1.1       Concrete actions taken and progress made in implementation


Following South Africa’s re-acceptance into the international community (both politically and economically) and its adoption of a progressive Constitution and Bill of Rights, the policy approaches to environmental regulation and management in South Africa have changed substantially. This has been undertaken with a view, inter alia, to giving effect to sustainable development and to providing some alignment with international trends.


The National Environment Management:  Air Quality Act (2004) reformed the law regulating air quality in order to protect the environment by providing reasonable measures for the prevention of pollution and ecological degradation and for securing ecologically sustainable development while promoting justifiable economic and social development; to provide for national norms and standards regulating air quality monitoring, management and control by all spheres of government; for specific air quality measures.


Two important standards for air quality (SANS 69 and SANS 1929) have been published in January 2005.  SANS 69 defines the basic principles of a strategy for ambient air quality management in South Africa while SANS 1929 gives limit values for common air pollutants, to ensure that the negative effects of such pollutants on human health is prevented or reduced. Another standard linked to air quality, albeit from an automotive regulatory perspective, is SANS 20049, which is concerned with the emissions of pollutants from different categories of motor vehicles.


The Climate Change Response Strategy, launched in October 2004, outlines the framework of how South Africa should respond to climate change. Due to the crosscutting nature of climate change, DEAT has established two formal committees where other government departments are represented. These are the Government Committee on Climate Change (GCCC); and the National committee on Climate Change (NCCC, where all impacted and affected parties are represented). These two bodies coordinate climate change issues, including the implementation of the Climate Change Response Strategy, across all relevant government departments. South Africa ratified the United Nations Framework on Climate Change in August 1997 and acceded to the Kyoto Protocol in March 2002 as a non-Annex 1 signatory. Annex 1 countries are committed to a 5% overall reduction in the period 2008 –2012.


From a national perspective, South Africa does not have a national air quality problem, but a number of outdoor “hot spot” areas where severe air quality problems exist, have been identified and plans were formulated to address the problem areas.


The implementation of the National Air Quality Management Programme 2000 – 2010 (NAQMP) is divided into four phases, each phase providing the foundation and/or input into the next phase. The NAQMP provides a starting point for the development of the National Air Quality Management Framework, which will replace the NAQMP as required by AQA. Phase 1 has focussed on translating the Integrated Pollution and Waste Management Policy into a strategy and initial implementation action plan for air quality management for the country.  Phase II (Transition), phase III (Capacity development) and Phase IV (Maintenance and Review) will follow.


The emission of particulates is regulated by the Chief Air Pollution Control Officer (CAPCO) of the DEAT.  Registration certificates for individual industries are issued by CAPCO, which state the actual quantity of particulate emissions that may be emitted during a 31-day period as well as the level of emission allowed in milligrams per standard cubic metre (mg/Sm3).


The White Paper on Disaster Management (1998) outlines government's new thinking in relation to disaster management. In line with international trends and our national objectives of efficient and effective management of our nation's resources, priority is given in this new approach to prevention.


The Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), together with the DEAT, are currently working on a vehicle emissions strategy, which aims to control the emissions allowed from vehicles following on from the DME plan for the use of Leaded Petrol to cease and the introduction of lower sulphur diesel from 2006 The DEAT is also formulating a Vehicles Emission Policy, which would outline vehicle specifications that would be needed for all vehicles to comply with the requirements of unleaded petrol.


South Africa has almost completely phased out the use of ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and carbon tetrachloride.


1.2       Constraints and challenges


Absence of legally binding air pollution regulations for the domestic sector (usage of fossil fuels)

Detailed research to understand and address specific contribution of industrial air pollution and specifically the contribution of the petro-chemical industry

The need/plan to conduct intensive sector specific consultation with the view of developing sector adaptation plans and mitigation plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Major financial implications associated with the complete phasing out of ozone-depleting substances, lead from petrol and reduction of diesel sulphur.

Although there has been some research in South Africa on the impacts of climate change on biodiversity, for example in the Western Cape, more research is needed to increase certainty on the range of impacts that can be expected including on human health and ecosystems, particularly as new data becomes available. This would also assists with the development of adaptation strategies to cope with predicted changes. There is a need for a central location for data storage of all exposure, demographic and health data is crucial in South Africa as well as the need to harmonize local government air quality monitoring systems to ensure compatibility.


2.         Energy


2.1       Concrete actions taken and progress made in implementation


Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency was introduced in all sectors of energy consumption, as specified in the Energy Efficiency Strategy of South Africa. The strategy sets a national target for energy efficiency of 12% by 2015.  Through a historic Energy Accord between industry, mining and the Government, industry players committed to a voluntary target of final energy demand reduction of 15%.  An appliance-labelling programme was launched for domestic appliances such as refrigerators and further sectors will be targeted, such as transportation.


Renewable energy

A renewable energy policy outlining a voluntary target of 10 000 GWh renewable energy contribution to final energy consumption by 2013 to be produced mainly from biomass, wind, solar and small-scale hydro, bio-fuels etc. (both power generation & non power generation technologies) was released. This is equivalent to approximately 4% of projected electricity demand by 2013.  Since the Cabinet approval of the renewable energy policy, 90 GWh have been implemented towards the target.  The Designated National Authority (DNA) was established within the Department of Minerals and Energy and a total of 7 projects have been submitted for approval.



Due to our growing energy needs, new generation capacity will be required by end of 2008. A process to call for bids to build the new power station has commenced.  The Integrated National Electrification Programme is on track and reached a target and connected the 7.5 millionth households to the national grid. This was an achievement of 4 million new household electricity connections since 1994. DME states that universal access to electricity will be achieved, within the envisaged 8-year time frame.  As one of the Government's poverty alleviation initiatives, a pilot study commenced in 2002 to inform the free basic electricity (FBE) policy to determine the most effective and financially viable delivery process. To date, about 490 000 households are receiving FBE through Eskom (the national electricity utility) and municipalities.


The Integrated Energy Centres (IeC’s) Programme, established in 2002 as contribution to the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme is considered an appropriate mechanism for delivering affordable, modern and safe energy, particularly to low-income communities in remote areas.  Three IeC’s have been established to date.



Cabinet approved the establishment of National Energy Research Institute (NERI), which will be jointly coordinated between the DME and Department of Science and Technology and will conduct research and innovation in the energy sector.  The Central Energy Fund (CEF) has been restructured to ensure that it plays a greater role in the development and promotion of renewable energy sources and technologies as well as host NERI.


Key future objectives of energy

Promote integrated planning across all spheres of Government;

Incorporate lesson learned from Integrated Development Plans (IDP’s) and local government experience with sustainable development into the Integrated Energy Planning process;

Address energy poverty;

Address income generation opportunities;

Focus initiatives on climate change;

Strengthen capacity in Government;

Build alliance and foster collaboration amongst regions;

Address restrictive trade barriers and subsidies in developed economies to reduce constraints on renewable energy product imports; and

Address issues around ongoing dependency on fossil fuels and coal in particular.


2.2       Constraints and challenges

General:  Lack of knowledge and expertise in Government as well as lack of adequate funding from National Treasury to achieve real impacts;

Lack of funding and capacity is causing a gap between policies, goals and targets and implementation;

Integrated Energy Planning is not adequately implemented;

The low price of electricity is a serious barrier to the introduction of energy efficiency measures as well as the competitiveness of energy from renewable sources;

In terms of cleaner fuels: The potential to displace Illuminating Paraffin (IP) as a household fuel with cleaner fuels such as LPG and bio-ethanol gel;

The lack of full cost accounting and perverse incentives (such as the VAT zero rating of IP) hampers the growth of cleaner fuels and technologies;

Basic energy subsidies don’t reach the poorest of the poor;

In terms of renewable energy:  Lack of adequate funding to achieve targets;

In terms of energy efficiency:  Lack of adequate incentives from Government and the absence of regulatory measures;

In terms of transport:  A lack of co-ordination between town palnning and an integrated approach to sustainable urban settlements hampers the introduction of efficient transport measures.


3. Industrial Development


3.1       Concrete actions taken and progress made in implementation

The South African economy has undergone substantial high-level restructuring since 1994, notably the stabilisation of macroeconomic variables and opening up to world trade. Macroeconomic variables such as inflation and the fiscal deficit have been stabilised, with a movement to a more market-determined exchange rate regime.


Macro-economic policy has been reflected in the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), 1994 and the Growth, Employment and Redistribution Strategy (GEAR), 1996. These policies focused on redressing the inequities and imbalances resulting from apartheid, creating jobs and stimulating the small business sector.  These measures firmly set South Africa’s economy on a growth path. 


The Integrated Manufacturing Strategy (IMS) provides a systemic approach to eliminating constraints and setting targets to improve the efficiency of the South African economy. At the core of the strategy is knowledge intensity with the aim of streamlining the utilisation of knowledge and skills in order to integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs), technology, innovation and knowledge-intensive services into the functioning of the economy as a whole.


The IMS identified sectors of the economy that have considerable potential for increased outputs, exports, and employment creation. These sectors are agriculture, including food production, tourism, ICTs, cultural industries and export sectors, including minerals and metals, clothing and textiles, automobiles, agro- processing, and chemicals. In each sector, strategies include a specific focus on employment generation, value addition and production for the domestic market as well as export growth, small business development and black economic empowerment.


A number of strategies have been developed to support industrial development.  These include the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Strategy, the National Research and Development Strategy and the National Skills Development Strategy. In support of the IMS a Competition Act was introduced in 1998 and the objective of the new legislation was that competition policy.


Government’s support to the small business sector has been substantially strengthened and refined. This approach culminated in the consolidation of small business support agencies in the formulation of the Small Enterprise Development Agency (SEDA). Legislative amendments to accommodate co-operative enterprises were also made.


Various policies and programmes were developed to facilitate Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) including promulgation of the BEE Act. Policies were also developed to modernise the South African technical infrastructure area of standardisation, quality assurance, accreditation and metrology.


The Government Programme of Action in the economic area for the next five years will focus interventions on the following sectors of the economy: reducing the input costs to develop downstream more labour intensive sub-sectors; exploitation of synergies amongst different value chains to make use of domestic raw materials where possible; and support for innovation and skills development.  On infrastructure government has developed strategies and investment plans of R180-billion in relation to transport logistics, electricity and water resources. Special efforts are ongoing to finalise sector development strategies and programmes, with regard to chemicals, business outsourcing and tourism, ICT and telecommunications, agro-processing, community, social services, wood and paper, appliances, the retail and construction industries.


The President has established a number of working groups comprising representatives of organised business and organised labour as well as big business and agriculture. The President uses these working groups to discuss various elements of economic policy and strategy with these stakeholders. Generally development of national industrial policies and strategies in South Africa is characterized by a tripartite collaborative approach.  All policies with potential socio economic impact are considered in National Economic Development and Labour Council (Nedlac), prior to finalisation.


There are many voluntary business initiatives in the country where business has collaborated on areas of corporate social responsibility. The National Business Initiative (also the Southern African regional partner of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development) is such an example, focussing, together with its 140 member companies on: employment creation, economic growth and poverty reduction, strengthening human capital through education and skills development and sustainable development, so that the scarce resources available to our generation can also be used and developed by the next. Business has also contributed to the highly acclaimed Business Trust, putting R1 billion into the five-year initiative, which would drive a skills and jobs agenda.  The Trust has support by government to go into a new five-year phase, which started in 2005.


The Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) has developed criteria to measure the triple bottom line performance of companies in the FTSE/JSE All Share Index who choose to participate, with the aim of compiling an Index comprising those companies that pass the criteria requirements. The JSE launched the first Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) Index in May 2004, recognising the strides listed companies are making in this regard. Forty-nine companies presently make up the Index. 



3.2       Constraints and challenges

There remains a vital need for microeconomic reform in terms of reducing the cost structure of the economy, upgrading industrial capabilities and facilitating economic inclusion. These interventions will be rooted in South Africa’s competitive advantages in the global economy.

Key challenges inhibiting sustainable industrial development in South Africa include:

The increasingly competitive global climate. In this context South African manufacturing companies in the future will depend even more on flexibility and speed, as well as on localised production. Manufacturing is also becoming more service intensive and this service orientation of manufacturing and increased customer demand will have consequences for the organisation of production, supply-chain management and customer relations;

Eradicating the lack of skills that has been recognised as a huge constraint to industrial growth;

Keeping up with international best practice and rapidly advancing science and technology;

Conforming with other non-tariff related requirements such as health and safety regulations, testing procedures etc;

Increasing South Africa’s ability to integrate best practice and new technologies into product and process standards supported by measurement capabilities and conformity assessment infrastructure. This ability depends on the availability of a modern technical infrastructure (ie Standards, Accreditation, Metrology) and institutions that cannot only provide relevant services but engage in international debates and forums to ensure that the South African industry can overcome and meet trade barriers;

Meeting the increasing need for strategic investment in specific technology platforms to ensure sector specific growth;

Complying with stricter environmental regulations, which will require the adoption of energy-and resource-saving technologies.





Menyetla Projects, in co-operation with PDC was awarded the contract to implement a demonstrations campaign of the ‘Basa njengo Magogo’ technology. The consortium conducted the “Basa njengo Magogo” technology demonstrations in Tembisa, wards 1 to 11, 69 and 84 of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality.  The Basa njengo Magogo demonstrations were undertaken during the summer of 2004 and 2005 (November to January) and the winter period of 2005. 


A baseline study was conducted to determine the extent of summer and winter coal use.  The reason why summer demonstrations were included in the project plan was to determine whether household coal use was high enough in summer to justify Basa njengo Magogo demonstration activities.  The baseline study therefore, had to attempt to quantify the extent of coal use in summer in the project area.   34% of the Tembisa households who were surveyed in the baseline survey asserted that they do use coal in summer (illustrated in Figure 1).  Based on this finding, the project proceeded with summer demonstrations of the Basa njengo Magogo method.


Although the baseline study indicated that 34% of households surveyed continued to use coal during summer, results from the summer demonstrations were mixed.  Firstly, it should be kept in mind that although some households continue to use coal in summer, demonstrations may not be reaching those households – or differently put, households being exposed to demonstrations are not the ones necessarily using coal.  In an area where 34% of households use coal; chances are that the majority of spectators will not be coal users since users and non-users can not be screened before demonstrations.  Convincing households to stay and watch a coal demonstration in the heat of summer is also not easy and the number of attendees at demonstrations was low.  Furthermore, only half of the demonstration attendees tried the method at home after being exposed to a demonstration and 60% of the sample wanted to attend a second demonstration.


Despite this, 20% of the households interviewed in the follow-up visits were using the method after a week and this increased to 46% after 1 month.  Also encouragingly was the fact that 78% of the households interviewed indicated that they would use the method in winter and 93% said that they would show and tell others about the method.  Qualitative responses from households also supported the finding that households who saw a summer demonstration did use the method in winter: “I have been using it since early this year, I’ve been using it for some time; I’ve been using it for 2 months; I have been using it before; I have been using it for a long time; Been using it a long time ago”


The winter demonstrations were undertaken over a period of 60 working days, from 24 May 2005 to 12 August 2005.  Five (5) groups of field worker demonstrators, managed to demonstrate to 13,402 households during the winter demonstrations.  This implies that 67% of the required 20,000 households were exposed to the winter demonstrations.  The follow-up interviews covered 9.7% of the households exposed to winter demonstrations.

In total, 68% of households reported that they are using the method.  The balance of households not using method were non-coal users (32%).  Of these households, 80% reported that they were showing and telling coal burning households about the method.

Benefits identified by households were in order of importance:

·        Gives less smoke

·        Heats quicker

·        Safe

·        Easy

Advantages to households

From the results of the summer demonstrations, 76.6% of households reported coal savings from using Basa njengo Magogo.  The most reported savings by one household was 200kgs per month and the least reported saving was 1kg per month.  On average, households saved 64 kilogrammes of coal per month by using the method.  The data also indcates that most households managed to halve their coal consumption during the study period.

The findings of the baseline study indicated that the average monthly coal expenditure is R112 for 136 kg of coal. This is about R0.80/kg, which is correct if a 50kg bag costs R40.  Based on the   cost savings as indicated in 10.3.1     Reduction in coal use, above, the average household saved about R51 due to their reduced coal consumption and expenditure.


In the summer follow-up interviews, 76% of households reported noticing less smoke in the street.  In winter, the majority of respondents (85%) reported less smoke in the street and 73% reported less smoke when lighting the fire.  It was therefore concluded that the majority of households reported a reduction in indoor and outdoor pollution but it should be stressed that this is not based on specific air quality measurements but the perceptions of the households interviewed.


In terms of other impacts, households started to notice health and safety related impacts such as experiencing less headaches, coughing as well as less clinic visits for coughing, burning eyes and headaches.  The biggest impact as reported by 80% of the sample was for the reduction in headaches while 79% of the sample reported a reduction in coughing.  In total 25% of the sample reported fewer clinic visits.


Financial Management and Training of Gauteng Schools.  Study completed for Matthew Goniwe School of Leadership and Governance


Well functioning schools, (and based on the premise of the study, therefore also financially well managed schools), displayed a number of characteristics which Christie et al (1997:10) described as taking dynamic forms, manifesting differently and exist in different mixes in different schools ad interact in complex contexts in different ways.  Successful schools could be best described as “resilient schools”.  These schools managed to survive and in some cases even thrive, in contexts where neighbouring schools were in crises.  Resilient schools were by no means free of problems but “their resilience manifested in the ways they faced and resolved problems stemming from both their environments and themselves (Christie et al, 1997:10)”. 

Much effort has been made by the Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) to improve school management and finance over the past five years.  Revised management structures have been created and training undertaken.  School development plans have been called for and financial management training provided. 

In order to establish best and poor practice with regards to school finance the study selected 7 secondary schools randomly in the top 25 % pass rates (2003) and bottom 25 % pass rates.  These schools were asked to provide the research team with their most important feeder school.  Seven schools were selected for inclusion.  One refused to provide data citing a departmental circular preventing issuing of any documents for removal from the premises[3].  There are therefore 6 Primary schools in the study.  The thirteen schools in the study have all been offered confidentiality and have been labeled alphabetically.

This study represents a first step in the assessment of financial management practices in a sample of Gauteng schools and seeks to investigate how schools manage their finances in practice and whether this is in line with GDE guidelines and school development plans. 


The study found that financial management training has been beneficial in that it established a first level of competency in schools – most schools are controlling their finances and keeping basic records.  All schools were externally audited and 77% of the sample provided feedback to parents.


School development plans have reportedly been drawn up by all schools in the sample, although only 77% of schools could produce an actual plan.  The quality of the plans varied and the area found most lacking was the presence of a vision and mission statement – only one school’s plan included it.  Although schools had an action plan, few had an implementation plan.  The absence of a vision/mission statement, action plan and implementation plan indicates that most schools are not following the National Department of Education (DoE) guidelines to the letter, although the majority of aspects are covered (most schools covered 5 out of the 8 points stipulated by DoE).  In general, it is concluded that although school development plans exist, the plans do not inform financial planning and decision-making in the majority of the schools.


In terms of school’s audited financial statements, the study found all schools submitted their statements to GDE but that there is confusion as to what is actually done with the documents. 


It is clear that, while the recent training has been successful, further on-going training support is required – particularly for the poor-performing schools.  This training should continue to improve the basic financial reports (and management tasks like bank reconciliation) and basic financial controls (like asset registers) but should focus increasingly on integrating management reports (planned budgets compared with actual expenditure and income on a monthly and an accumulative basis).

School Development Plans must be seen to be an important facet of medium- and long-term financial planning and not documentation developed to meet submission requests.  They should include operational implications as well as capital projects.  Further, they should be updated at least annually if not quarterly if they are to have an impact on school finance in the Gauteng Province.

The final curator of schools’ audited financial statements must be identified and the reasons for submission and completing audited financial statements disseminated to schools SGBs and SMTs as well as IDSOs.  It is thought that these documents could be invaluable to financial planning and analysis at provincial level.

There is evidence that individuals serving on SGBs are appointed for short periods of (usually) three years.  Re-training SGBs should then be undertaken in line with this time-frame, or, failing this, an alternative method of continually improving financial management expertise sought.  Training SMTs may hold a possible solution.

Alternatives to the limited tranche payment for financial support to Section 21 schools should be sought.  The outcome should resolve cash-flow problems schools may experience and may lie in monthly payments over the school year.

As financial management training is limited in ability to cover for all possibilities outside of the schools’ control, the GDE should ensure that there is support for individual schools that suffer financial burdens outside of their control.  This could preclude the providers of bulk services (like water, sanitation, solid waste removal and electricity) from disconnecting the school with GDE approval.  This would require further work.





The Association for Renewable Energy Cooking Appliances (Afreca) was formed on 18 February 2005 at a meeting attended by 26 individuals representing 22 companies (Minutes attached as Appendix 1).  An interim committee was selected to drive the process of legally constituting the organisation, formulate an action plan and operationalise the organisation.  The founding organisations agreed on the scope of Afreca to be as follows:

·                                The organisation is first and foremost about delivering to the market, improved cooking technologies.

·                                The organisation would concentrate its efforts on the development, production and marketing of safe and efficient cooking appliances,

·                                There would be no prerequisite that the fuel type be renewable. 

·                                The region of operation would include the whole of SADC as this was also the region of operation of SESSA.


The strategic planning session held on 18 May 2006 was perceived as consolidation of previous planning efforts with the following objectives:

  • To compile an implementation strategy for AFRECA activities for the next 18 months;
  • To prioritise activities and assign resources; and
  • To prepare the planning documents (strategy and budget) for submission to ProBEC to enable funding to be released.




Internationally, the use of solar water heaters (SWHs) is driven by sustainability issues, security of supply as well as government incentives in a number of formats.  Interest in solar water heating within South Africa is fuelled by the target set for renewable energy as well as electricity generation capacity problems and, to a lesser degree, to encourage sustainable energy consumption.   The study was commissioned by the Central Energy Fund (CEF) of South Africa to inform the public/private sector of global best practice for available solar water heating technologies, warranty periods, pricing, and standards.


A questionnaire-based survey was addressed to international manufacturers, requesting offers for the export of SWHs into South Africa. Proposed systems were similar in size and type but differed strongly in price. Thus, countries were classified into low price ("Group A") and high-price ("Group B") categories.  Imported SWH ex-factory prices were compared with South African prices, which were found to be slightly higher than the imported ones. 


Per m² of collector surface, Group A water heaters only cost 38% of the Group B models, per unit tank volume 43%. For indirect models, per unit tank volume, the Group A models cost half of the Group B models. For indirect pumped systems, Group A models cost two third of Group B models. It can be seen that for the more elaborate designs the price difference decreases.


Table1:  Prices (in Euro) per square meter and per litre

Retail prices (in Euro) for complete systems are shown below.


Group B solar water heating retail prices are situated between 2000 and 5000€, Group A model retail prices show an asymmetrical distribution around 1500€.



Figure 1 :  Retail prices Group A and B

For the scope of this study, it was important to compare ex-factory prices. The distributions of per-unit ex-factory prices for an order of 100 units, as well as for an order of 1000 units are shown below.

Figure 2:  Ex-factory price per unit (100)

It should be noted that the samples represented in the histograms are not identical, since not all manufacturers quoted all the different prices.


Figure 3:  Ex-factory price per unit (1000)

The price information presented so far concerned systems of different sizes. Since larger systems tend to be more expensive than smaller ones, it is useful to calculate "specific" prices (i.e. prices per unit of tank volume or per collector aperture unit). The most frequently offered prices were €3.50 per litre (e.g. €700 for a SWH with a 200 litre tank) and €200 per m² (e.g. € 800 for a SWH with 4 m² collector aperture surface).


The average per m² retail price, including installation, distribution and VAT, for South African SWHs has been found to be ZAR3736 by Holm (2005). Using figures for installation and distribution published in the same study, this corresponds to an ex-factory price (excluding VAT) of ZAR2340, or €277 (at the exchange rate of 24/05/2006).


The figure below shows a comparison of this price with the 100 unit ex-factory prices proposed by the manufacturers replying to the questionnaire of this study. The entry marked in red corresponds to the average South African price (Holm, 2005) which is 20% higher than the average prices observed in the present study.



Figure 4:  Ex-factory price m2 collector area (100)

It should be noted that this comparison must be read with caution, not only due to the variations in the ZAR exchange rate, but also because:


-         the transport of the import models is not taken into account

-         all but one of the respondent manufacturers don't have a South African legal presence which makes eventual warrantee conflicts more difficult for the client.

-         the SWH models compared have different quality standards.


However, the comparison indicates that there is a price reduction potential for SWH produced in South Africa.


Typical warrantee periods are one year for tanks (6 years for collectors) from Israel, two years for India, three years for China, and between 5 and 6 years (up to 10 years in one case) for other countries.


International experience indicates a mix of demand and supply stimulation is required to develop the solar water heating market. On the demand side, the study recommends a “virtual feed-in law” approach encouraging the replacement of electricity for water heating by SWHs in analogy to the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (guaranteed purchase of renewable electricity for 20 years).




The project was carried out by PDC and Synopsis, a French-based renewable energy research organisation and funded by the Central Energy Fund (CEF) in South Africa.  The main aim of the research was to inform the South African public/private sector of global best practice for available SWH technologies, warranty periods, pricing, and standards.  The main outputs of the project were:

·                    A database containing information on various SWH systems:

§                     Price for SWH system in Euro’s

§                     Manufacturer’s details.

§                     Warranty offered.

§                     Standards/Marks achieved.

·                    A report, based on sectored nodes (Australia, China, India, Europe-high tech, Europe – low tech, USA, small islands) detailing the current global technology market environment dealing with policy, standards, approaches and the technology best practice recommendations relating to South Africa’s current market.


The research was conducted through a desk-top analysis of technical and market data.  Data collection was through a structured questionnaire, e-mailed to a contact database of SWH manufacturers whose contact details were obtained from the web, trade publications, personal contacts and existing reports. 

Some difficulties encountered were:


  • Incorrect contact details, e-mail non functional, unknown recipients and non-functioning fax numbers;
  • Some websites only listed postal addresses for companies; and
  • A number of websites requires paid membership before company contact details could be accessed.



Renewable energy technologies are often cursed with the simplicity of their basic designs.  For example, most engineers take one look at a solar cooker and declare “I can design a better/more efficient one…”  A Solar Water Heater (SWH) is another renewable energy technology that is based on fairly simple designs utilising the basic laws of physics but at least the technology does not prompt instantaneous reaction to re-design or improve it all the time.  The technology has been around for more than 40 years, yet has failed to make significant in-roads in the various markets for hot water.  Notable exceptions are the Israel, Greek and Turkey markets where SWHs have enjoyed significant market penetration.  Solar water heating is however, generating interest again, internationally due to energy security issues, as well as locally in South Africa where the potential contribution of SWHs to the reduction in peak electricity demand and achieving renewable energy targets is prompting some positive developments.  Solar water heating is not an alien technology in South Africa and a number of product suppliers and manufacturers are active in the relatively small market in South Africa.  However, a number of serious barriers exist that prevent the technology from taking off in a significant manner and the Central Energy Fund (CEF) has been tasked to address a number of issues related to solar water heating in South Africa.  The paper is based on a study commissioned by CEF to investigate the global best practice for available SWH technologies, warranty periods, pricing, and standards.  The paper will provide an overview of the research results, a brief description of the lessons to be learned from other countries in terms of solar water heating as well as highlight key recommendations to enable the development of the solar water heating industry in South Africa.


Finding / Outcomes

In answer to the question which solar water heating systems would be appropriate for the South African market, most proposed systems were split systems, either with collector and tank as separately installable elements, or with collector and tank mounted onto a common support ("mono-blocs"). No integrated solar water heaters (where collector and tank are the same element) were proposed.  Group A manufacturers proposed direct (without heat exchanger) and indirect (with heat-exchanger) systems, with gravity flow and pumped. Group B manufacturers proposed mostly indirect pumped systems. Vacuum tubes are dominant in China; in other countries, mostly flat plate collectors were proposed.


Prices in Group A and Group B countries

Per m² of collector surface, Group A water heaters only cost 38% of the Group B models, per unit tank volume 43%. For indirect models, per unit tank volume, the Group A models cost half of the Group B models. For indirect pumped systems, Group A models cost two third of Group B models. It can be seen that for the more elaborate designs the price difference decreases.


Table 1:  Prices (in Euro) per square meter and per litre

Retail prices (in Euro) for complete systems are shown below.


Group B solar water heating retail prices are situated between 2000 and 5000€, Group A model retail prices show an asymmetrical distribution around 1500€.



Figure 1:  Retail prices Group A and B

For the scope of this study, it was important to compare ex-factory prices. The distributions of per-unit ex-factory prices for an order of 100 units, as well as for an order of 1000 units are shown below.

Figure 2:  Ex-factory price per unit (100)

It should be noted that the samples represented in the histograms are not identical, since not all manufacturers quoted all the different prices.


Figure 3:  Ex-factory price per unit (1000)

The price information presented so far concerned systems of different sizes. Since larger systems tend to be more expensive than smaller ones, it is useful to calculate "specific" prices (i.e. prices per unit of tank volume or per collector aperture unit). The most frequently offered prices were €3.50 per litre (e.g. €700 for a SWH with a 200 litre tank) and €200 per m² (e.g. € 800 for a SWH with 4 m² collector aperture surface).


The average per m² retail price, including installation, distribution and VAT, for South African SWHs has been found to be ZAR3736 by Holm (2005). Using figures for installation and distribution published in the same study, this corresponds to an ex-factory price (excluding VAT) of ZAR2340, or €277 (at the exchange rate of 24/05/2006).


The figure below shows a comparison of this price with the 100 unit ex-factory prices proposed by the manufacturers replying to the questionnaire of this study. The entry marked in red corresponds to the average South African price (Holm, 2005) which is 20% higher than the average prices observed in the present study.



Figure 4:  Ex-factory price m2 collector area (100)

It should be noted that this comparison must be read with caution, not only due to the variations in the ZAR exchange rate, but also because:


-         the transport of the import models is not taken into account

-         all but one of the respondent manufacturers don't have a South African legal presence which makes eventual warrantee conflicts more difficult for the client.

-         the SWH models compared have different quality standards.


However, the comparison indicates that there is a price reduction potential for SWH produced in South Africa.


Typical warrantee periods are one year for tanks (6 years for collectors) from Israel, two years for India, three years for China, and between 5 and 6 years (up to 10 years in one case) for other countries.


Lessons learned and repeatability

A solid majority of experts believe that the best and the most cost-effective market stimulation schemes are of the structure of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act for the production of renewable electricity:

-         utilities have the obligation to admit renewable electricity into the grid,

-         the price per kWh has to cover the generation cost, which is decreasing over the years

-         the investment is financed by low-interest credit schemes

-         all conditions, such as the basic contract between the state and the individual and prices agreed to are guaranteed for at least 10 years. 


It is not easy to apply this structure to the case of solar water heating, since SWH cannot feed back hot water into the electricity grid. However, the special situation of RSA allows a direct application of this scheme, for the reason that SWH mainly replace electricity in "geysers". Use of a SWH therefore is equivalent to the production of electricity (one could call this "virtual" electricity feed into the grid).  To illustrate the issue, consider two neighbours (one with a SWH) who take a shower each every day. On rainy days, both will use electricity, on sunny days, the SWH will heat the water and no electricity will be used by the "solar" neighbour. For all practical purposes, this is equivalent to both neighbours being non-solar, and one of them feeding a shower's worth of electricity into the grid, each sunny day. In this scheme, investment into SWH can be a personal decision, open to all stakeholders, users, utilities, investors, and to the state.


In summary, the following observations were made during the course of the study:

  • Internationally, solar water heating application focus shifts between domestic (Australia) and industrial/commercial (India) while the most successful countries (Austria, Spain) have almost a 50/50 split between domestic and commercial applications;
  • In Europe, solar water heating applications are balanced between hot water and space heating applications.  Space heating applications were not evident in large numbers in any  other country;
  • Most countries have renewable energy policies setting targets, but the more successful countries articulated very detailed targets for SWH (either in number of people to be serviced or m2 of collectors to be installed);
  • A mix of instruments was found to be used in different countries to stimulate the SWH market.  These include capital subsidies (mostly to installers or manufacturers), interest rate subsidies, financial incentives to manufacturers, as well as financing/credit schemes for end-users;
  • Successful countries (China, Austria, India and Australia) invested in large-scale public awareness programmes together with other incentive schemes;
  • Successful countries have on-going research and development (R&D programmes).  In countries were the subsidy is calculated based on energy actually produced, there is an active interest for all involved to increase solar energy output, which in turn boosts R&D focussed on the most efficient solution, for example in Germany and China.
  • Factors that boosted the market for SWH and may also boost it in South Africa are uncertainty in electricity supply and electricity price increases.


The following recommendations are put forward:

1.      Ensure stability and credibility of policy measures in order give a solid and credible decision basis to investors and clients

2.      Investment schemes should be favoured over subsidy schemes: this leaves the responsibility with the investor and motivates success

3.      Implement low-interest loans over approximately 10 years (this will further boost the responsibility of the investor and puts durability and competitive price in his own best interest)

4.      Tie subsidies to the electricity price - the logic being the "virtual" electricity production by SWH (see above), and that all electricity users should share the cost of transition to renewable electricity

5.      Tie subsidies to energy actually produced and not to installed capacity.  Subsidies are set and guaranteed at the outset of the programme.

6.      Support on-going research and development to ensure a position of market leadership

7.      Don't overprotect established companies

8.      Use standards and labels as means for market development and not as market barriers

9.      Invest in specific standards and assist the industry to obtain labels

10.  In cases where foreign competitors have the means to deliver key technologies cheaper than domestic companies (e.g. vacuum tube collectors from China), enter in a joint venture for the adaptation, production and marketing of these products

11.  Encourage a strategic reflection on potential key technologies for South Africa.  Such a reflection should include consideration of regional needs and potential markets so that South Africa can position itself as a market leader in the region.

12.  Access the market in sub-Saharan Africa and neighbouring islands based on these key technologies.

13.  Both local as well as regional demand should be targeted by the South African SWH industry.  

14.  When the solar market takes off, the companies which are operational at the time will be the fist in line to reap benefits.  South Africa should focus on becoming the regional centre of SWH expertise.



A framework of 8 goals, 18 targets, and 48 indicators to measure progress towards the Millennium Development goals was adopted by a consensus of experts from the United Nations Secretariat and IMF, OECD and the World Bank.  To refresh memories and contextualise the discussion, the eight millennium development goals (MDGs) are:

  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Achieve universal primary education
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women
  4. Reduce child mortality
  5. Improve maternal health
  6. Combat HIV/Aids, malaria and other diseases
  7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  8. Develop a global partnership for development


Energy is specifically mentioned in four of the indicators of target 9 under goal 7:

    • Proportion of land area covered by forest;
    • Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1,000 GDP (PPP);
    • Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozone-depleting CFC’s;
    • Proportion of population using solid fuels.


Although energy is not specifically mentioned in relation to other goals, targets or indicators, it can be argued that energy plays a central part in all the MDGs and without access to adequate energy sources, development becomes more difficult to achieve.  This is supported by Cowan et al (1999) who states that energy itself is often not the top priority concern in a particular locality.  Often there are other more basic concerns, such as improved water supplies, roads and employment creation and energy does not feature on such a list of development priorities.  However, energy is an essential input or requirement for development.  Without energy, water pumping, ploughing, processing and transporting agricultural produce becomes impossible.  Without energy, and specifically electricity, businesses can not develop and grow – telephones, computers, lights and industrial equipment can not work.  However, Cowan et al (1999) cautions that “there is not a simple connection between improved energy supplies and “development” and that improved energy provision is only one of the elements along the way, and may not make a big difference by itself”. 


The energy-gender-poverty link is also not explicitly highlighted in the MDGs, targets or indicators but recognised by practitioners as of importance in achieving the MDGs.  To contextualise further, it should be noted that the term “gender” is used in varying contexts, for example when discussing women’s issues or as a politically correct statement to include in policy discussions or funding proposals.  White (1989) states that because gender is viewed as a woman’s issue, this biased view have had negative outcomes for women in reverse to what it aimed to achieve.  Sengendo (2004) notes and summarises that gender is a two dimensional concept:  first within the development paradigm, gender is an analytical variable used to analyse policies, programmes or projects and how these impact differently on men and women.  Secondly, gender describes the social relations between men and women and the way this is socially constructed by society. 


Gender is considered important in energy, because it influences energy choices and energy use; through the specific gender roles of men and women (men and women need energy for different things and they use energy differently) and because of “gender relations” which, refers to the underlying balance of power between men and women in society, from which gender roles and gender contracts are derived.   Following from the different gender roles of men and women, are gender needs, specifically practical and strategic gender needs.  When both needs are addressed, there is emphasis to mainstream gender issues in all aspects of the society, so that the focus not only remains on gender issues linked to women being users of energy, but also to aspects such ensuring participation of women in all decision-making processes and ensuring gender is incorporated in planning as well as policy formulation.


The full paper achieves two objectives:

  1. It summarises the South African CSD 14 country report’s contents, with specific emphasis on energy;
  2. It formulates recommendations to increase efforts to address energy and gender issues to ensure attainment of the MDGs.



High levels of air pollution associated with household coal burning create human health problems and unnecessary expenses in terms of health costs to individuals, employers and the national government.  In the interest of community development and social investment, Anglo Coal supported a project to popularise an alternative fire lighting method to reduce air pollution.  Anglo Coal appointed PDC to implement a Basa njengo Magogo alternative fire lighting method demonstration project in Wards 7, 8 and 9 of Vosman Township near Witbank.  The project aimed to demonstrate the Basa njengo Magogo (BnM) method to 10 000 households in the identified project area within the winter months of June, July and August 2006.  Although Anglo Coal sells only to Eskom or export markets and no Anglo coal is used by households in Emalahleni, air pollution has been identified as an area of concern for both the company and the local community. Anglo Coal supports the project in the interest of community health and general environmental improvement of the area.  The Basa njengo Magogo project is endorsed by the Department of Minerals and Energy, Department of Environmental Affairs and the Emalahleni Local Municipality.


Vosman township lies off the N4 highway just before Witbank. The area has a mix of formal and informal housing and although basic service delivery has been improved, specific parts of Vosman remain without electricity and proper housing.  The project was implemented in Wards 7, 8 and 9 with Ward 7 being the largest and most informal.  The area was selected for the project by the Municipality, Ward Councillors and Anglo Coal.  Originally, only Wards 8 and 9 were earmarked for the project but to reach the target of 10 000 households, Ward 7 had to be included.


Households in Vosman obtain coal by purchasing from coal merchants as well as by collecting coal from a nearby old coal dump.  Households don’t admit freely to collecting coal from the dump as it is prohibited and they can be prosecuted.  Collecting from the dump is also dangerous and households report hearing explosions (most possibly from methane gas) and the coal caving in.  The quality of the collected coal is also very low since it is full of stones, very big in size, brittle and reportedly does not burn well and is difficult to light.  Lastly, out of the 8 coal yards selling coal that were interviewed, 1 admitted selling coal from the dump site.  However, the project team suspects that more merchants are selling coal from the dump or mixing it with coal bought elsewhere.


The 26 fieldworkers were divided into 9 groups, and each group had to do a minimum of 2 BnM demonstrations per day.  At the end of the project, some groups made more than 2 demonstrations per day but at individual households, bringing the average number of people reached per demonstration down.  In total 893 demonstrations were held over the demonstration period with an average of 12 people attending per demo.  The majority of demonstrations were held in the street, although some demonstrations were held inside someone’s house by special request. 


In follow-up visits to households, 534 households responded positively to the question if the method was tried at home after the demonstration - 90% of the sample. Out of the 534 respondents who did try the method at home, 528 reported that they were successful and that the method worked – 99% were successful.  In total, 66 respondents (or 11% of the sample) reported that they were not successful in using the method.  The majority of respondents (465) saw a demonstration in the street, 106 saw a demonstration in a house, 6 saw it at a school and 1 person saw a demonstration at a coal yard.


In total, 555 interviews were conducted during the monthly follow-up visits.  In total, 535 respondents or 96% of the sample indicated that they were using the BnM method to make a fire.  On the suggestion made by Anglo Coal, interviewers also had to indicate if they actually witnessed the household making a BnM fire or having just made a BnM fire.  Interviewers reported that they actually saw the BnM method used in 487 of the households visited – or 87% of the sample interviewed.


A total of 12 396 households were reached during the demonstration period.  Furthermore, during the household daily follow-up visit, households indicated that they would be willing to tell and show other people the method.  In the monthly follow-up interviews, 389 respondents indicated that they have told someone about BnM while 368 respondents indicated that they have shown someone how to make a BnM fire. 



In terms of the frequency of household fires, 173 households or 31% of the sample reported no change in the frequency of their fires.  A total of 124 households still make only one fire a day while 49 households reported still making two fires per day.  Therefore, 69% of the sample reported making fewer fires per day with the BnM method:


Figure 1:  Fire making frequency of households



Households who purchase their coal in bags, reported the following savings per month:


Figure 2:  Coal savings for households buying coal in bags


Figure 3:  Coal savings for households buying coal in buckets


A small number of households (15) also reported saving 1, 2 or 3 wheelbarrows per month, but since this was only reported by such a small sample it was only included in the total coal savings for the area.


In total, based on the weight of coal per bag, (around 30 kilograms) households saved on average 28 kilograms of coal per month (the equivalent of almost 1 bag) or in total more than 7 tonnes over the project period.  Based on the weight of a bucket of coal, households saved 4.7 kilograms of coal per month (the equivalent of 1 bucket or tin of coal) and in total, households using tins saved 920 kilograms of coal over the project period.  This would mean that households using coal bought in bags are saving almost R50 per month while households using tins are saving almost R20 per month.


[1] Note that there are more responses than respondents because more than one fuel type is being saved through solar stove use.

[2] School children have named this project so, and it is a sub-project of the “Basa Mama” project in Zamdela.

[3] It was noted at the time of the interview at the school that the year’s financial records were with the auditor.